# 272 U4

 What are the 3 reasons for assessing IOA? Consistency of measurement Minimizes observer bias reflects the quality of operational definition What is the difference between agreement between observers and accuracy?  Is it possible to have one but not the other?  Explain. Agreement - how well data from independent observers correspond Accuracy - How well the data reflects what actually happens Yes it is possible, two people can make mistakes in the same way therefore you can have agreement but not accuracy definition could be too broad, thus you have accuracy but not agreement What is the difference between and reliability and validity? Can you have one without the other? Explain. Reliability - consistent measurement of the construct Validity - measurement reflects the construct yes. you can measure something reliably and it not reflect the constructand you can measure a construct inaccurately List and describe the 3 methods for calculating interobserver agreement that were compared? Frequency Ratio - Compares totals of observersCan be used for frequency, intervals of Bx, ordurationTypically used when measuring free-operant bx FormulaSmall freq/large freq x 100 o Point by point agreement - Assess agreement on each instance of BXUse when there are discrete opportunities for BX (e.g., present-absent, correct-incorrect) Formula - PBP IOA = A/(A + D) X 100 o  Frequency within interval recordingFormula - Subtract # of disagreements form the totalnumber of intervals For each interval that was scored as adisagreement divide the small frequency by the larger frequency (Total # of disagreements – total intervals) +(sum of all disagreement when small freq is divided by large freq)/ totalintervals In general, describe results of the study. (3 ways to calc IOA) Repp et al. You must select the appropriate method for your study Exact agreement was the most conservative method. 1.     What can be done to reduce the likelihood that a high percentage of agreement between two observers is simply the result of chance given that the level of chance agreement changes as the percent of intervals in which the behavior is recorded changes? If there is a slight effect the acceptable agreement must be higher to compensate for errors in recording What are potential sources of bias discussed by Kazdin? Reactivity Observer Drift Observer expectancies & feedback Complexity of observations What are the two purposes of baseline observations? What is the purpose of the intervention phase? The descriptive function - provides the existing level of performance or the extent to which the client engages in the bx The predictive function - allows for the prediction of future performance without intervention Intervention - describe current performance and predict future performance if future conditions were unchanged What is the purpose of the second A phase (i.e., the second baseline phase)? describe current performancePredict future performancetest the prediction of the prior phase and baseline or the first A condition Describe different procedures that can be implemented to reverse behavior. withdraw the intervention make the intervention ineffective or less effective (lower quality of praise, add a delay b/t praise and bx) continue the consequences but alter associated with the consequence Under what conditions is noncontingent reinforcement more likely to lead to a return to baseline levels of performance and why is this the case? when praise was previously contingent on a specific behavior  because it is not praise itself but the relationship between praise and the bx In what situations would it be appropriate to start with intervention rather than baseline? when the base rate of Bx is zero or has never been performed Explain how you can still meet the requirements of a reversal design without returning to baseline. by testing the effectiveness of two interventions showing control by one rather than the other at rates significantly different from baseline Describe potential problems that should be considered when using a reversal design. ethics of a reversalif bx change agents are willing to reverseif bx change is reversableif the client is willing to reverse Authoratlborn80 ID205118 Card Set272 U4 Description272 U4 Updated2013-05-04T05:53:56Z Show Answers