Soils Test 2

  1. Anthropic (A)
    Human-modified, mollic-like, high in P
  2. Folistic (O)
    Organic horizon, saturated for less than 30 days per normal year
  3. Histic (O)
    Very high in organic content, wet during some part of the year
  4. Melanic (A)
    Thick, black, high in organic matter (>6% organic C), common in volcanic ash
  5. Mollic (A)
    • Prairie soils
    • Thick, dark-colored, high base saturation (>50%), strong structure
  6. Ochric (A)
    Too light-colored, low organic content or thin to be Miollic, may be hard and massive when dry
  7. Plaggen (A)
    Human-made sodlike horizon created by years of manuring
  8. Umbric (A)
    Same as Mollic except low base saturation (<50%)
  9. Agric (A or B)
    Organic and clay accumulation just below plow layer (6-8")
  10. Albic (E)
    Light-colored, clay and Fe and Al oxides mostly removed
  11. Argillic (Bt)
    Silicate clay accumulation
  12. Calcic (Bk)
    Accumulation of CaCO3 or CaCO3*MgCO3
  13. Cambic (Bw, Bg)
    Changed or altered by physical movement or by chemical reactions, generally nonilluvial
  14. Duripan (Bqm)
    Hard pan, strongly cemented by silica
  15. Fragipan (Bx)
    Brittle pan, usually loamy textured, dense, coarse prisms
  16. Glossic (E)
    Whitish eluvial horizon that tongues into a Bt horizon
  17. Gypsic (By)
    Accumulation of gypsum
  18. Kandic (Bt)
    Accumulation of low-activity clays
  19. Natric (Btn)
    Argillic, high in sodium, columnar or prismatic structure
  20. Oxic (Bo)
    • Tropical
    • Highly weathered, primarily mixgture of Fe, Al oxides and nonsticky-type silicate clays
  21. Petrocalcic (Ckm)
    Cemented clacic horizon
  22. Petrogypsic (Cym)
    Cemented gypsic horizon
  23. Placic (Csm)
    Thin pan cememnted with iron alone or with manganese or organic matter
  24. Salic (Bz)
    Accumulation of salts
  25. Sombric (Bh)
    Organic matter accumulation
  26. Spodic (Bh, Bs)
    Organic matter, Fe and Al oxide accumulation
  27. Sulfuric (Cj)
    Highly acidic with Jarosite mottles
  28. What is the major feature or characteristic that distinguishes the plaggen and anthropic from the other epipedons?
    artificial (human-made)
  29. How many acres are in a township?
  30. How many sections in a township?
    • 36
    • 1 square mile each
    • 1 square mile = 640 acres
  31. Categories of Soil Taxonomy, from broadest to most specific?
    • Order
    • Suborder
    • Great Group
    • Subgroup
    • Family
    • Series
    • Soil Phase
  32. Epipedons
    Surface horizons
  33. Endopedons
    subsurface horizons
  34. Define soil phase
    A subdivision of the series, it narrows down properties used in farm planning
  35. Entisol
    • recent soils
    • no naturally formed horizons (or just beginning)
    • Ent
  36. Vertisol
    • Inverted soils
    • high content of swelling clays
    • ert
  37. Inceptisol
    • beginning soils
    • master horizons dominate
    • mild weathering, various conditions
    • ept
  38. Mollisol
    • soft, dark soils
    • must have Mollic epipedon
    • 50% base saturation
    • semi-arid to moist grasslands
    • oll
  39. Alfisol
    • moderately weathered soils
    • argillic/natric diagnostic horizon
    • >35% base saturation (no mollic, oxic, spodic horizon)
    • mildly acid
    • alf
  40. Ultisol
    • old weathered soils
    • most soluble materials leached out
    • argillic horizon <35% base saturation
    • (strongly acid clays)
    • Ult
  41. Aridisol
    • Dry soils
    • orchic epipedon
    • usually high in salts
    • id
  42. Spodosol
    • Ash colored soils
    • must have a spodic horizon
    • humid climates
    • od
  43. Histosol
    • organic soils
    • high organic matter
    • water-saturated conditions
    • measured by amount of decomp
    • histic epipedon
    • ist
  44. Gelisol
    • frozen soils
    • ice or permafrost
    • el
  45. Andisol
    • ando-like soils
    • volcanic ash materials
    • not much profile development
    • and
  46. oxisol
    • oxide soils
    • oxic horizon
    • tropical soils
    • ox
  47. ent
  48. ert
  49. ept
  50. id
  51. oll
  52. od
  53. alf
  54. ult
  55. ox
  56. ost
  57. and
  58. el
  59. soil profile
    a vertical section of the soil through all its horizons and extending into the parent material
  60. soil horizon
    a layer of soil, approximately parallel to the soil surface, differing in properties and characteristics from adjacent layers below or above it
  61. truncated profile
    having lost all or part of the upper soil horizon or horizons
  62. diagnostic horizon
    horizons having specific soil characteristics that are indicative of certain classes of soils. horizons that occur at the soil surface are called epipedons. those that occur below the surface are diagnostic subsurface horizons
  63. illuviated horizon
    a soil layer or horizon in which material carried from an overlying layer has been precipitated from solution or deposited from suspension. The layer of accumulation.
  64. eluviation
    the removal of soil material in suspension from a layer or layers of a soil. usually, the loss of material is described by the term leaching.
  65. soil complex
    • a mapping unit used in detailed soil surveys where two or more defined taxonomic units are so intimately intermixed geographically that it is undesirable or impractical, because of the scale being used, to separate them.
    • Ocie-Gepp-Gatewood complex
  66. soil association
    • grouping of soils found together in a geographical area
    • consists of 2 or more soil series
    • Creldon-Hoberg-Burden Association
  67. soil catena
    a group of soils that commonly occur together in a landscape, each characterized by a different slope position and resulting set of drainage-related properties
  68. pedon
    the smallest volume that can be called a soil. it has three dimensions. it extends downward to the depth of plant roots or to the lower limit of the genetic soil horizons. its lateral cross section is roughly hexagonal and ranges from 1 to 10 m2 in size depending on the variability in the horizons.
  69. particle size
    • not limited to 2mm diameter
    • fine-silty, loamy, coarse loamy, clayey, skeletal, etc.
  70. mineralogy
    • dominant clay in system
    • kaolinitic,, montmorellonitic, mixed, etc.
  71. clay activity
    semiactive, active, superactive
  72. soil temp
    • frigid<8C, 46F
    • messic - 8-15C, 46-59F
    • thermic - 15-22C, 59-72F
    • hyperthermic - above 72, 22C
  73. soil reaction
    acidic, calcareous, neutral
  74. soil depth
  75. the "unofficial" category, or the workable part of taxonomy
    Soil Phase
  76. What is used as the mapping unit in MO soil surveys?
    • Soil phase
    • 5 randomly assigned numbers
  77. You'd use this, along with the soil survey, as a starting point for developing farm plans, to i.d. and develop erosion control practices or if you were a county assessor
    Land Capability Classification System
  78. What would class 1 be in the Land Capability Classification System?
    few, if any limitations on land use (good crop land)
  79. If land falls into the class range of 1-3 under the Land Capability Classification System, what would it be suitable for?
    • row crop cultivation
    • 2-3 more sloped than 1
  80. Class 4 for Land Capability Classification System?
    marginally suited for cultivation
  81. Class 5 for Land Capability Classification System?
    • limitation is something other than slope
    • frequent overflow, large rocks or boulders
  82. Classes 6-8 in Land Capability Classification System?
    • several use limitations
    • 6-7-8 increasing slopes
    • 8, maybe watershed areas, aesthetic values
  83. Land capability subclasses?
    • e - erosion hazard
    • w - water
    • s - soil limitation (usually impermeable layer)
    • c - climatic factor
  84. What type of land area description would you likely find east of the Mississippi River?
    • metes and bounds
    • creeks, fored road, trees
  85. what type of land area description would you find west of the Mississippi River?
    • Quadrant/Putnam
    • Rectangular survey system based on areas with square corners
  86. Principal meridian runs
    • North - South
    • T1N, T2N, T3N, principal meridian, T1S, T2S
    • 6 mile intervals
  87. Base Line
    • Runs East-West
    • Base line is in Arkansas, south of Little Rock
    • R29W, R28W, R20W...
  88. A township is how many miles squared?
  89. how many acres in a quadrant?
  90. when measuring chroma, is a higher or lower value indicative of a grayer soil?
    lower the value, grayer the soil
  91. value measures blackness. if a soil was absolutely black, what value would it have?
    • 0= absolute black
    • 10=no black
  92. structure is
    the shape of soil agregates
  93. platy means
    long axis parallel to the surface (kind of oval shaped)
  94. granular is
  95. soil structure - subangular/blocky
    • corners may be rounded, but sort of cube-shaped
    • more blocky as clay content increases
  96. soil structure - angular blocky
    • almost perfect cube shaped
    • faces flat, edges sharp
  97. prismatic structure?
    flat tops, axis perpendicular to the soil surface. like little towers.
  98. columnar structure?
    axis perpendicular to the soil surface but rounded tops
  99. most common soil structures in mo?
    granular, subangular, angular blocky
  100. massive
    extremely high clay content and particles fuse together
  101. friable
    when the plow or till can break it apart easily
  102. Old horizon designation was O. New?
  103. Old designation was O1 or O2. New?
    • O1 - Oi, Oe
    • O2 - Oa, Oe
  104. Old designation A. New?
  105. What is the first mineral horizon?
  106. In the old designation, transition zones were indicated with a capital letter and a number. What do the new transitions look like?
    Two capital letters
  107. Old designation A1. New?
  108. Old designation A2. New?
  109. Old designation A3. New?
    AB or EB
  110. Old designations A & B?
  111. Old designations AC. New?
  112. Old designation B. New?
  113. Old deisgnation B1. New?
    BA or BE
  114. Old designation B2. New?
    • B or Bw
    • Only use Bw when no other subordinate is appropriate.
    • So if we have B2t, what do we use? Bt2
  115. Old designation is B3. New?
    BC or CB
  116. In the old designations, roman numerals signify change in parent materials. How is that indicated now?
    By using a number in front of the capital letter
Card Set
Soils Test 2
Test 2 Soils