Describe 3 pre-reformers:
- 1) John Wycliffe (English) - followers were "Lollards" (may have spoken in tongues, because also called "Babblers"). Translated bible from Latin to English and put scripture in people's hands in common language.
- 2) John Huss (Bohemian/Czech Repub) - "just shall live by faith." Influenced by Wycliffe. Moravians come from him (precursor to Apostolics). Burned at stake at Counsel of Constance
- 3) Erasmus of Rotterdam (Dutch) - ad fontes (back to text). He searched for the original scriptures meaning within the Greek text. Luther used his Greek translations to translate the Bible to German. Influenced Luther's sola scriptura theology.
Why did the Roman Catholic Church need to be reformed?
- 1) Salvation came by the church
- 2) Church polity was privileged over scripture
What was the founding event of the Reformation?
(1517) 95 theses nailed to the Wittenberg Church in Germany
Why was Luther's speech before the Diet of Worms in 1521 so important?
Luther would not recant and declared "sola scriptura". He also declared that the church does not interpret scripture, rather scripture interprets the church.
What are the 3 solas of the Reformation?
sola scriptura, sola fide, sola gracia
What's a magisterial reformer?
- When the church is working in harmony with the government. Working
- in harmony with magistrates, reformed Christendom working hand in hand. Right
- hand of God is the church, the other hand (left) is the law.
What is an Anabaptist and how did this term
function as a catch-all for groups rejecting the magisterial reformers as well
as the RCC?
They believed in believers' baptism. Since they were not magisterial, all non-magisterials got clumped together as "anabaptists."
3 types of Anabaptists are...
Mennonites, Amish, Hutterites
Who was Menno Simmons?
He was the foremost leader of the the Anabaptist, ordained a Catholic but later rejected it. Dutch; wrote foundations of Christian doctrine.
Discuss Zwingli and his attempts to reform Zurich.
Zwingli - magisterial reformer; believed in the merger of church and state; took reformation further than Luther. (C of C mentality - if bible doesn't mention it...). Believed in memorialism. Led the Swiss reformation.
He established a magisterial rule in Zurich in which he influenced the culture and allowed the church to have the final say in government matters. This resulted in egalitarianism and the church had the final say.
English Act of Supremacy...
1534 - Henry VIII declared himself as the head of the church in England and from that point forward the church of England would answer to the king and not the pope. Functional ruler is the Archbishop of Canterbury.
What is meant by describing Henry VIII’s and
Elizabeth I’s approach to the Christian faith as the middle way or via media?
Riding the fence between Catholicism and Protestantism
Outline Henry VIII successors through Elizabeth
I and identify their religious commitments.
- Edward VI (Protestant), Lady Jane
- Grey (9 Day Queen - Protestantism), Bloody
- Mary (Roman Catholicism), Elizabeth I
- (Anglican; followed Via
- Medea (the middle way)
Who was Thomas Cranmer?
Archbishop of Canterbury; wrote Book of Common Prayer.
He recanted to go back to Catholicism during Mary's reign, but later recanted his recant and was burned. He burned his hand first as an act of remorse.
What was the Book of Common Prayer and why was it important?
Influenced the liturgical structure of English Reformed Church, as well as the development of modern English. Gave order of prayer and shapes English language.
Who was John Calvin and what were his primary accomplishments?
Developed a theological basis for the reformation with his Institutes of Christian Religion.
Monergism - man contributes nothing to salvation - all from god (even faith); French; exiled to Geneva; wrote Institutes of Christian Religion; develops a theological basis for the reformation; means of grace consubstantiation communion.
Explain the differences between Zwingli, Calvin, and Luther on communion.
- Zwingli - memorialist
- Calvin - consubstantiation (means of grace)
- Luther - consubstantiation (ubiquity of Christ)
- Luther's successor.
- Develops Luther's theology
- First systematic theologian of protestant reformation; molder of protestantism
What was Protestant scholasticism?
He who controls the language controls the argument. Philosophical basis for religion. In Protestant scholasticism the scholars try to adapt the language of Aristotle and it corrupts them. The incarnation begins to be overwhelmed by Aristotelian terminology. German Pietism arose from this. Idea of Sunday morning church should be more of a lecture and over more philosophical things.
Define Pietism and name at least 3 principal proponents of pietism in Germany.
Pietism - Christocentric and heartfelt religion which used the language of "born again" for the first time. Experiential and cousins of Pentecost. Nicholas Zinzendorf was the movement's prophet. The Moravian Pentecostal movement (1727) happened in Pietism. (hearfelt religious devotion; ethical purity; charitable activity; pastoral theology)
Proponents: Frankie, Spainer, Zizendorf
Tried to purify the English church; wanted to be congregational and independent rather than episcopal. Advocated greater "purity" of worship and doctrine.
Who was Oliver Cromwell?
Puritan leader from England - "The Lord Procterate." Signed Charles I death warrant in 1649 and pursued Charles II.
Who were the Hugenots? What was the Edict of Nantes?
Hugenots - French protestants which were oppressed and persecuted.
Henry IV (1598) issued Edict of Nantes granting them freedom of worship in all places where they had churches the previous year, except Paris. He also guaranteed their security by granting them all the fortified towns they had held the year before.
Who was Ignatius Loyola? Explain why the Jesuits were so influential.
Loyola - founder of Jesuits; wrote book of Spiritual Exercise (spiritual disciplines). "Society of Jesus"
Influential because they lived amongst the people instead of separating themselves like monks.
Who was Jacob Arminius? Who were the Remonstrants?
Arminius - calvinist preacher. Studied under Theodore Beza. Pastored in Amesterdam. Questions the tenants of Calvinism.
Remonstrants were Armenians. Came up with 5 points that proved the errors of Calvinism. This in turn prompted the development of TULIP.
What does TULIP stand for?
- Total depravity
- Unconditional eternal security
- Limited atonement
- Irresistible grace
- Perseverance of the Saints
Successor of Calvin in Geneva. Teaches Arminius. Wrote Right of Magistrates.
What was the 30 Years War?
(1618-1648) War between Catholics and Protestants in Europe. This wore down the European people which in turn gave them an apathetic view of religion in exchange for peace.
What was the name of the treaty signed at the conclusion of the 30 Years War?
Peace of Westphalia (Also called Peace of Munsner)
How did Protestant scholasticism and the Thirty Years War contribute to the rise of the Enlightenment Movement and the modern secular state?
Prot. Scholasticism based itself off of philosophical tendencies. 30 year war produced a tiredness of war and fighting. These 2 things worked together to ultimately form the enlightenment movement. This movement contributed to both religious and academic circles, ultimately creating the modern secular state. This is a result of the combination of philosophy and a hatred for violence.
What was the Council of Trent and how/why was it important?
- (1545-1563) Formed the Tridentine Catholicism that lasted for 400 years until Vatican II.
- It helps RCC establish their true beliefs and turn the tides back to RCC in the reformation.
- Clarifies dual authority (Spirit is finished speaking to the church) and establishes that Church tradition is equal to scripture
- Pope only submits to council; however, he never calls one, so he essentially becomes authority at this point.
What events and ideas coalesced to make it possible for Luther to be successful?
- Printing press
- Desire for scripture to be in a common language
- Johann Von Staupitz protected him
What is a voluntary church and why was this so threatening to the established powers of Christendom?
People were able to "convert" in voluntary church. Previously, citizenship had to do with religion. You were born a Frenchman, and thus you were Catholic, etc. This new idea challenged the authority of Catholicism and the traditions that had governed the land until that point.
Articulate 4 important emphasis of the Reformation and be able to make application for at least 2 of them to your contemporary setting.
- 1) Scripture:emphasis on scripture, return to scripture, has got to be in understandable language so you can go back to scripture
- 2) Communion:differences in communion
- 3) Government:magisterial vs. non-magisterial
- 4) Faith/Grace:justification by faith (faith vs work)
- *importance of scripture - sola scripture
- *issue of faith - don't believe baptism is a work, but faith propels us to action