Animal Care

  1. What is a Gene ?
    Individual units of inheritance
  2. What is a Dominant gene?
    dominant genes will override recessive ones
  3. What is a Recessive gene ?
    A recessive gene is expressed when paired with another recessive gene
  4. What is Heterozygous ?
    A chromosome pair consisiting of one recessive and one dominant gene
  5. What is Homozygous ?
    A chromosome pair consisting of either 2 dominant or 2 recessive genes
  6. What is Inbreeding ?
    • The breeding of closely related offspring
    • Allows the stongest traits come out
    • Products of inbreadding often show traits that are much better or much worse than their parents
  7. What is Line-Breeding ?
    • The breeding of individuals that are more distantly related, common ancestors in their pedigree for 4 or 5 generations
    • WIll have similar characteristics, but less dangerous than inbreeding
  8. What is Out-Cross breeding ?
    • The breeding of individuals with no common ancestors in the last 4 or 5 generations
    • Used to bring hybrid vigour to progeny
  9. What is Spontaneous Ovulator ?
    The release of an ovum is determined by stimuli from inside the body such as hormones.  ex rats, mice, sheep
  10. What are ways to confirm pregnancy in feline and canines (4)
    • Blood Test: must be 30-35 days into pregnancy
    • Ultrasound: can readily confirm a pregnancy at approx. 22 to 28 days of pregnancy
    • Radiographs: at approx. 45 days of pregnancy, skeletons will be mineralized and visible on xray
    • Palpation: feel the developing fetuses between 26 and 35 days
  11. What are the signs of impending labour for canines ?
    • dogs prefer social contact and an area in which to whelp
    • restless
    • inappetant
    • temperature drops 6-24 hrs pripor to parturition
    • filling of teats with milk
    • occasional vaginal discharge
  12. What are the signs of impending labour for felines ?
    • prefer solitude and seek an enclosed nesting area
    • restless
    • inappetant
    • temperature drops
    • filing of teats with milk
    • occasional vaginal discharge
  13. What happens in the first stage of labour and delivery ?
    • Usually lasts 6-12 hrs
    • Chracterized by restlesness..pacing, rollin, circuling. Excessive grooming of abdomen and genitlas, panting ,shivering
    • Usually quiet during delivery
    • Uterine contractions begin
  14. What happens in the Second stage of labour and delivery ?
    • Involves uterine contractions of increasing frequency and strength
    • Delivery of all the neonates is usually within 2-24hrs
    • "active stage" of labour
    • small greenish sav of fluid will protrude from the vulva before the fetuses are expelled
  15. What happens in the Third stage of labour and delivery ?
    • "Resting phase"
    • Follows each delivery and can last up to 4 hrs between births
    • Placenta separates from uterus and is passed within 5-15 mins of the birth of each neonate (should be one for each neonate)
  16. What are some emergency situations that may occur ?  vet would need to be consulted
    • Prolonged gestation (70 days in cats, 64 days in dogs)
    • Abnormal vaginal discharge prior to or during delivery
    • Obvious malpresentation of neonate or neonate is in vaginal canal but not delivered within 10 mins of active labour
    • Mother is in obvious extreme distress and pain
  17. What type of questions should you ask the client preparing for a birth emergency ?
    • What type of breed ?
    • How many puppies/kittens one already born ?
    • How long between the puppies/kittens
    • When was the first pup/kitten born ?
    • How old is the queen/bitch ?
    • Is this their first litter ?  if not how did the previous litter go ?
  18. What is Eclampsia ?
    • "Milk Fever"  Trouble supporting the calcium demands of lactation resulting in hypocalcemia.
    • Symptoms typically develop during peak lactation
    • Life threatening
  19. What are the Symptoms of Eclampsia ?
    • Panting
    • Trembling
    • Weakness
    • Nervousness
    • Restlessness
  20. What can Eclampsia progress to ?
    • Muscle spams
    • Fever
    • Seizures
    • Ataxia
    • Inability to stand
  21. What is Mastitis ?
    Inflammation of the mammary glands.  Normal nursing glands are soft and enlarged. Diseased glands are red, hard and painful and the mother will often discourage nursing.  Hot packing and milking the glands help relieve pressure
  22. What is Pseudo Pregnancy ?
    False pregnancy.  A non pregnant female exhibits the maternal behaviour and physical sign commonly associated with pregnancy.
  23. What are maternal symptoms of Pseudopregnancy ?
    nesting and adoption of inanimate objects or other animals
  24. What are physical symptoms of pseudopregnancy ?
    • mammary development
    • lactation
    • weight gain
    • +/-anorexia
    • +/-vomiting
  25. What is Retention of fetal tissue/placenta ?
    if a queen or bitch fails to pass placental or fetal tissue she can develop an infection
  26. What are the symptoms of Retention of fetal tissue/placenta ?
    • fever
    • restlessness
    • appetite loss
    • neonate neglect
  27. Concerns of Vaginal bleeding ?
    Vaginal bleeding during pregnancy is not normal, and is suggestive of litter abortion.  If happens later in pregnancy , may be delivering the litter prematurely
  28. Post partum expectations: Vaginal discharge..
    normal for up to 3 weeks post partum. typically black or reddish in colour
  29. Post partum expectations: umbilical cord . . .
    • mother stretches and severs the cord with her teeth and then consumes the majority of the umbilical cord and placenta.
    • Stump should be checked daily
    • Stump should dry out
  30. Post partum expectations : Nursing. . .
    most puppies + kittens willl begin nursing within 1-2 hrs of birth.
  31. What is Colostrum ?
    first milk.  Needs to be ingested within 24 hrs of birht in order to be absorbed into the gut. It contains antibodies that help protect the neonate from disease.
  32. Post partum expectations: Environment . . .
    Bitch and queen provide the warmth that kittens and puppies need to sruvive,  ensure area is free from drafts as neonates cannot regulate their own body temperature for first 2 weeks of life.
  33. Post partum expectations:  Human interaction...
    Handle all puppies and kittens equally on a daily basis.  Necessary for the normal socialization process. Do not forget about the mother.
  34. What are the 5 grooming basics ?
    • Brushing/combing , trimming
    • Bathing + drying
    • Ear + eye care
    • Dental care
    • Nail trimming
  35. Explain brushing/combing, trimming
    • Brushing is the most important part of the grooming routine. 
    • Should be done before the bath.
    • Brushing remvoes dust, dirt, dead hair
    • Work from rear to the front.
  36. What are the different types of brushes ?
    • Slicker brush: Removes dead hair. Recommended for long or dense coats, tangles or mats
    • Pin Brush: works well on long flowing hair.  Tips of pins are rounded and smooth
    • Traditional bristle brush: polishes and adds shine to the coat
    • Hound glove: has the bristles of a slicker embded into a glove or mit
    • Rubber Grooming mit: adds polish + shine once the dead hair is removed, shorthaired dogs
    • Undercoat Rake: removes dead undercoat
  37. What are some different kinds of combs ?
    • Fine toothed
    • Medium toothed
    • Wide toothed
    • Flea combs
  38. What are the Clipper aids ?
    • Clipper: maybe have blades that need to be screwed on, or snapped on
    • Clipper blades: many varieties based on function.  Larger blade = shorter length
  39. Types of Scissors
    • Scissors: variety of lengths, curved or straight
    • Thinning shears: used to blend and remove unwanted hair without leaving cut marks.  Thin the coat
  40. What are the different types of demating methods ?
    • Comb Method: Cut hair between mat and comb. comb slides between mat + skin
    • Scissor debuldking method: place one blade through the base of mat, cut UP + AWAY from skin
    • Scissor removal method: scissors through a thin layer of hair near base of mat, slowly cut the hair
  41. Why cant you use human shampoos on animals ?
    The pH of an animals coat is different than a human.  You can dry your pets coat out by using human brands.
  42. What are the types of shampoos ?
    • Aloe + Oatmeal
    • Medicated shampoo
    • Flea + Tick shampoo
  43. What are the types of dryers ?
    • Cage dryers: cage mounted, partially drys coat
    • Floor dryer: stronger air current than cage dryer
    • Wall dryer: provides stronger air current than the floor dryer
  44. What are the types of nail trimmers ?
    • Guillotine: even cut to nail
    • Scissor type
    • Nail grinder/drummel: smoothes out rough edges after trimming
    • Human Nail timmer: must be very sharp
  45. What can be used at coagulants ?
    • Styptic powder/stick
    • Silver nitrate sticks
    • Cornstarch/flour
  46. Pets eyes should be ?
    Clear, bright and free of any discharge
  47. Pets ears should be ?
    Pink and clean.
  48. What are the types of toothbrushes ?
    • Human child toothbursh
    • Cat toothbrush
    • Dog toothbrush
    • Finger toothbrush
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Animal Care
Animal Care quiz