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glucose is a major blood carbohydrate used for what?
used for energy by cells of the body
excess glucose is stored as what?
where is glycogen stored?
muscles and liver for later use
what produces insulin?
beta cells of pancreas
what is the purpose of insulin?
lower glucose by increasing intake of glucose to cells (increases rate of glycolysis/changes glucose to lactic acid)
what is the normal range for a fasting adult plasma glucose?
what is hyperglycemia?
increased glucose in the blood (>99)
what is hypoglycemia?
low glucose in the blood (<70)
what is a check strip?
used to calibrate the glucometer (like a standard)
what is Hemoglobin A1C?
(also called glycosylated hemoglobin) measures glucose control over 3 months - diabetics should be &5 or less if they're in control.
2 hour post prandial tests are used for what?
screen for gestational diabetes and monitor insulin dose
abnormal result from post prandial
four reasons to use home glucometers
- 1. convenient
- 2. can check glucose immediately when having symptoms
- 3. can decide insulin dosage quickly
- 4. keeps glucose at a more desirable level so disease complications are minimized
Performing a GTT (glucose tolerance test)
- 1. patient must be fast
- 2. get a urine sample and draw blood
- 3. if FBS is <160, have patient drink glucose solution.
- 4. if FBS is >160, contact physician before performing test.
- 5. draw blood and get a urine sample at 30, 60, 120, and 180 minutes after the solution has been drank.
- 1. nothing but H2O to eat/drink
- 2. no smoking (raises metabolism)
- 3. no activity (raises metabolism)
- 4. watch patient for reaction (light headed, nauseated, etc.)
- 5. obtain each urine sample before drawing the blood sample
chemistry sample uses what?
serum or plasma (can be urine or CSF)
chemical levels are used for what?
to diagnose and treat disease by comparing the patients results to normal ranges
reported as a number, not pos. or neg.
Chemistry tests can be ordered as..
- 1. single tests
- 2. groups of chemical types
- 3. by organ system
- 4. by insurance/medicare grouping
substances with an exact known value or concentration
you should calibrate instruments how often?
every 6 months or less
The range of this control is very similar to the normal range of the chemical in healthy people
range is higher than patient's normal range
abnormal high control
range is lower than that of values found in healthy patients
abnormal low control
CLIA requirements for POL
- 1. calibrate every 6 months or less and document results in instrument manual
- 2. run 2 levels of controls everyday
- 3. action logs must be kept
written documentation of problems with instruments and how they are corrected
only water 12 hours before blood draw
random sample, drawn at any time
right before next dose
right after dose is given
a certain number of hours after a dose (check lab directory for number of hours/varies by medication)
- 1. usually glucose
- 2. after a meal is completed
- 3. usually 2 hours (2hr.pp)
- (elevations add to risk of obesity and heart attack)
white waxy fat that your body does need
2 sources of cholesterol
- 1. made by the liver and controlled by genetics (endogenous)
- 2. from the foods you eat (exogenous)
elevated cholesterol leads to:
- 1. inc. risk of coronary heart disease
- 2. white waxy fat lines on the walls of arteries