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What is the water distribution in the body?
Osmosis is the moving of water from a high concentration gradient to a lower one to gain equalibrium
If the solution is hypotonic what would the cell do?
It will swell like a hippo
If the solution is hypertonic what would the cell do?
It would shrivel up
What are the key functions of water in the body?
- Blood volume
- Hydrolysis reactions
- temperature control
What are the two ways water helps regulate body temperature?
- 1 - sweat evaporation
- 2 - it has a high heat capacity (specific heat) so it is resistant to temperature changes.
how does the body regulate water balance with the antidiuretic hormone?
The angiotensin system
why does drinking alcohol increase water loss from the body?
it blocks the anti-diuretic hormone.
What condition will cause dehydration?
- losing more water than you take in
What are the symptoms of dehydration?
- dry mouth and skin
- fatigue and muscle weakness
- reduced urine output
- deep yellow urine
- headache and dizziness
- lower blood pressure
- increased heart rate
- kidney failure
What conditions will cause water intoxication?
Too much input, not enough output.
What is the larges contributor to sodium intake in the US?
Why are processed foods usually higher in sodium?
Preservatives, flavor, and tag-alongs
What foods are low in sodium?
almost all unprocessed foods
What is the bioavailability of sodium?
almost all consumed is absorbed
How is excess sodium excreted?
What are the three main functions of sodium in the body?
- water balance
- absorption of glucose and some amino acids
- Required for muscle contraction and nerve impulse conduction
Where is the majority of sodium found in the body?
Outside the cell
What type of charge does the sodium ion have?
What conditions can cause a sodium deficiency?
What are the symptoms of hyponatremia?
- blurred vision
- muscle cramps
What are the concerns with excessive sodium intake?
- increase Ca+ loss in urine
- Kidney stones
What food groups are generally high in potassium?
- oranges (juice)
What does processing generally do to the potassium levels in foods?
What are the major functions of potassium in the body?
- Nerve function
- muscle contraction
- Fluid balance
- Associated with lowering blood pressure
Where is the majority of the potassium in the body found?
Inside the cells
What charge does potassium have?
What are the health concerns with a low potassium intake?
- and irregular heartbeat
- Raise blood pressure
- increase risk of having a stroke
What conditions can cause a potassium deficiency?
- Some diuretic medicines that treat hypertension
- Very low dietary intake
What conditions may cause hyperkalemia?
Poor kidney function
high potassium levels in the blood
low potassium levels in the blood
What provides most of the chloride in the dietary intake?
What are the major functions of chloride in the body?
- fluid balance
- component of HCl
- nerve transmission
- transportation of CO2
What type of charge does chloride have?
What conditions can lead to a chloride deficiency?
nutrient poor diet coupled with bouts of vomiting
what are the health qconcerns with excessive chloride intake?
increased blood pressure
What food group provides a good bioavalable source for Ca+?
What lowers the bioavalability of Ca?
The presence of Oxalic acid
What increases the absorption of Ca?
- Vitamin D and Lactose, when eaten with other foods
- Not taking more than 500mg at a time
- More acid
How much dietary Ca is usually absorbed for non-pregnant adults, pregnant women, and children?
- Non-pregnant: 25-30%
- pregnant: 75%
- Children: 75%
What are the two main types of Ca supplementation?
- Calcium salts
- Calcium carbonate
- Calcium Citrate does not require acid for absorption
What is the concern with using oyster shell and bone meal as a Ca supplement?
they are not bioavailable
Do low blood calcium levels indicate a poor dietary intake of Ca?
No, if there is not enough Ca in the blood and there is inadequate intake then Ca will be taken from the bones
How does the body lower high blood Ca levels?
Thyroid gland releases calcitonin
How does the body raise low blood Ca?
Parathyroid gland releases parathyroid hormone