1. The kidneys and lungs work together by maintaining a balanced pH with an acid base ratio of?
    • 1:20 
    • Acid:Base
  2. The blood becomes alkalotic when a person breaths at a higher rate, thus removing more CO2 from the body. T/F?
    T, by removing more CO2 the person decreases the amount of carbonic acid that is able to be produced. pCO2 would show an amount below 35. Carbonic acid is increased.
  3. A person that is breathing at a slower rate retains more CO2 increasing the amount of H2CO3 produced. This creates a more acidotic blood represented by an increase in pCO2 over 45. T/F?
  4. What are some common causes for respiratory acidosis?
    • CNS depression due to head injury or sedating medications.
    • Respiratory muscle dysfunction due to injury, dz, or medications.
    • Massive PE
    • Pain that causes Hypoventilation.
  5. SSx of Respiratory Acidosis
    • Dyspnea
    • Respiratory distress
    • shallow breathing
    • Tahcy / dysrhythmias
    • AMS, HA, restlessness
  6. Metabolic acidosis is can be caused by anything that would lower the base w/in the blood stream such as:
    • Diarrhea and intestinal fistulas.
    • Diabetic ketoacidosis
    • Renal failure
    • Anaerobic metabolism
    • Starvation
    • Salicylate intoxicatio
  7. SSx of metabolic acidosis include:
    • AMS, HA, restlessness
    • Lethargy, Stupor, coma
    • Dysrhythmias, Warm flushed skin
    • Kussmaul’s respirations
    • Nausea and vomiting
  8. Causes of Respiratory Alkalosis
    • Psychological response such as anxiety or fear
    • Pain
    • Increased metabolic demands, such as fever, sepsis, pregnancy, or thyrotoxicosis
    • Medications, such as respiratory stimulants
    • Central nervous system lesions
  9. Signs and Symptoms of Respiratory Alkalosis
    • Light headed, Numb & tingling, Confusion, Inability to concentrate, Blurred vision
    • Dysrhythmias, Palpitations, Diaphoresis
    • Dry mouth, Tetanic spasms of arms & legs
  10. Signs and Symptoms of Metabolic Alkalosis
    • Respiratory depression
    • Dizziness, Lethargy, Disorientation, Seizures, Coma
    • Weakness, Muscle twitching, Muscle cramps, Tetany
    • Nausea Vomiting
  11. Metabolic alkalosis is one of the most difficult acid-base imbalances to treat. Why? How is it treated?
    • Acetazolamide (Diamox), to increase bicarb excretion but resolution imbalance is slow.
    • In severe cases, IV administration of acids may be used.
  12. What is MUDPILES and what does it refer to?
    • List of things that cause:
    • Methanol
    • Uremia
    • DM T1 SOS
    • Peraldihyde
    • Iron or INH tox
    • Lactic Acidosis
    • ETOH
    • Salicilate Aspirin
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