A&P 2

  1. What kind of tissue is blood considered?
    Connective tissue
  2. What three things do connective tissue contain?
    In the case of blood what are they?

    extracellular fibers-plasma proteins

    ground substance-plasma
  3. Blood is the only what in the body?
    The only liquid tissue
  4. Avg amount of blood in man? in woman?
    4-5 L in woman

    5-6 L in man
  5. Blood makes up how much of total body wt?
  6. Blood pH must be maintained within narrow limits. What are they ?
    7.35-7.45 pH
  7. What happens if blood falls below a certain pH?
    Blood becomes acidic

    below 7.3-get sick-acidosis

    below 7.0-nerves cannot fire results in coma and death
  8. What happens if blood rises above a certain pH?
    Blood becomes alkaline

    if it rises above 7.5 get sick0-alkalosis

    if it rises above 8.0 nerves cannot STOP firing results in convulsions leads to rigor and then death
  9. What are many poisons considered(pH wise)?
    Many poisons are alkaloids
  10. Name the 3 functions of blood
    • -transportation
    • -regulation
    • -protection
  11. What are three ways the blood functions in "transportation" ?
    -carries o2 and nutrients to body cells

    -carries co2 and wastes to liver/kidneys/lungs

    -carries hormones to target tissues
  12. In what way does blood act in regulation of body temp?
    -carries heat generated by muscles to other areas of the body.

    -carries heat to skin so as to dissepate it.
  13. What three ways does blood act in "regulation"?

    • -body temp
    • -fluid and electrolyte balance
    • -pH- regulates buffer system
  14. What three ways does the blood act in "protection"?
    -blood clotting


  15. State the composition of blood
    • Mostly liquid
    • 55% plasma and 45% formed elements
  16. State the composition of blood plasma
    90% H2O and 10% solutes
  17. Name the three plasma proteins.
    State the composition
    Which is the most abundant?
    Albumins -60% MOST abundant Plasma protein


  18. What are albumins?
    Blood solute and most abundant plasma protein

    smallest plasma protein(in size)

    regulate osmotic pressure (fluid volume)
  19. What are globulins?
    blood solute and plasma protein

    include alpha and beta(transport lipids withing blood) as well and gamma cells (immunity)
  20. What are fibrinogens?
    blood solute and plasma protein

    LARGEST protein (in size)

    involved in blood clotting
  21. Name the non protein molecules in blood
    -nitrogen molecules which include amino acids,urea,uric acid
  22. Name the nutrient molecules in blood
    • amino acids
    • glucose
    • fatty acids
  23. Name the gases that are in blood and their compositions
    O2- 3%

    CO2- 7%

    N2- no function and can cause "the bends" in scuba divers
  24. What can an abundance of N2 in blood cause?
    the bends in SCUBA divers
  25. What is an electrolyte? Is it present in blood?
    Electrolyte breaks apart in solute to form ions (charged particles)

    Yes they are present in the forms of salts, acids, and bases
  26. Three formed elements in blood tissue


  27. What is hematopoiesis?
    When and where does it occur?
    production of formed elements (RBC's, WBC's and platelets)

    Only occurs in RED bone marrow after birth
  28. What is a hemocytoblast?
    • STEM cell in red bone marrow that produces ALL three types of formed elements (RBC,WBC,PLATELETS)
    • hemo=blood
    • cyto=cell
    • blast=build

  29. What are Erythrocytes?
    aka rbc's.

    Very small 7.5 mm3
  30. How large is mm3
    1/100 of a ml
  31. What shape is an erythrocyte? Why?
    RBC's are a biconcave disc

    perfect design b/c it allows absolute maxsurface area for the volume
  32. What is the approx number of RBC's per mm3?
    4.5-6 million
  33. What happens to a nucleus in a mature RBC?
    It disintegrates and the RBC becomes a lean,mean O2 carrying machine
  34. What is a Reticulocyte?
    immature RBC that still has it's nucleus
  35. How long is the lifespan of an RBC without its nucleus?
    only about 120 days
  36. What is the replacement rate of RBC's?
    2 million RBC's destroyed and replaced every second
  37. What are the primary functions of RBC's?
    to carry O2 and CO2
  38. What is a Hemoglobin? Describe the parts and what each does?
    • blood protein that carries O2 and CO2
    • 2 parts to Hemoglobin molecule

    • -heme-pigment containing iron-carries O2
    • -globin-protein part-carries CO2
  39. What is the composition of CO2 and O2 in blood?
    CO2 is 23% in blood

    O2 is 97% in blood
  40. WHY are hemoglobin molecules SO effecient at carrying CO2 and O2?
    CO2 and O2 bond to different parts of the hemglobin molecules they are NEVER competing with each other to make that bond.
  41. What is anemia?
    • low RBC count
    • There are many diff types of anemia.
  42. What are leukocytes?
    aka WBC's
  43. Where are Leukocytes located?
    Small fraction in our blood, vast majority are in tissue spaces and lymphatic organs
  44. What are two main catagories of WBC's?
    granulocytes and agranulocytes
  45. What is
Card Set
A&P 2
Blood system