1. Anatomy
    The study of the structure of organs and body systems.
  2. Physiology
    The study of the function of the organ and body systems.
  3. Atoms - The smallest parts of elements that still retain all the original properties, combine to form a molecule.

    Molecule - A chemical bonding of atoms that possesses its own characteristics indepent of the atoms themselves.  Specific molecules combine to form cells.

    Cells - the basic unit of all life.  Cells combine in terms of function and type to form tissues.

    Organs - Two or more tissue types work together to perform a specific function.

    Organs work together to perform a task the result is an organ system.

    The organism is the result of all organ systems working together within the body.
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  4. The highest level of organization is the
  5. Tissue
    • -Four types of tissues
    • 1. Epithelial tissue
    • 2. Connective tissue
    • 3. Muscle tissue
    • 4. Nervous tissue
  6. Epithelial tissue
    • - provides covering (such as skin tissue)
    • - produce secretions (such as glandular tissue)
    • - does not have its own blood supply
    • - commonly exist in sheets
    • - depends on diffusion from nerby capillaries for food and oxygen
    • - regenerates easily if well nourished
    • - classified according to two criteria: number of cell layers and cell shape
    • - Simple and stratified epithelial tissues vary in relation to the number of cell layers
    • - Simple epithelium: contains one layer of cells. Location: where absorption, secretion, and filtration occur.
    • - stratified epithelium: contains more than one layer of cells and serves as protection.
    • - shape of epithelial cells includes squamous, cuboidal, and columnar.
  7. Connective tissue
    • - found throughout the body
    • - serves to connect different structures of the body
    • - commonly has its own blood supply; hower, some types of connective tissue, such as ligaments, do not.
    • - various types of connective tissue: bone, cartilage, adipose (fat), and blood vessel.
  8. Muscle tissue
    • - dedicated to producing novement
    • - 3 types: skeletal, cardiac, and smooth
    • - Skeletal muscles supports voluntary movement (voluntary movements are controlled by the brain)
    • - Smooth muscle is found in the walls of hollow organs, such as intestines, blood vesselsm bladder, and uterus.  Involuntary control.
    • - Cardiac muscles is only found in the heart.  Involuntary control.
  9. Nervous tissue
    • - provides structure for the brain, spinal cord, and nerves
    • - nerves are made up of specialized cells called neurons that send electrical impulses throughout the body
    • - support cells, such as myelin, help to protect nervous tissue
  10. 11 Organ Systems
    • 1. Circulatory
    • 2. Digestive
    • 3. Endocrine
    • 4. Integumentary
    • 5. Lymphatic
    • 6. Muscular
    • 7. Nervous
    • 8. Reproductive
    • 9. Respiratory
    • 10. Skeletal
    • 11. Urinary
  11. Anatomical position
    a standard position in which the body is facing forward, the feet are parallel to each other, and the arms are at the sides with the palms facing forward.
  12. Superior
    toward the upper end of the body or body structure
  13. Inferior
    toward the lower end of the body or body structure (opposite to superior)
  14. Anterior
    toward the front of the body of body structure
  15. Posterior
    toward the back of the body or body structure (opposite to anterior)
  16. Medial
    toward the middle of the body or body structure
  17. Lateral
    toward the outer sides of the body or body structure (opposite to medial)
  18. Intermediate
    between medial and lateral
  19. Proximal
    close to the origin of the body part to point of attachment
  20. Distal
    away from the origin of the body part or point of attachment (opposite to proximal)
  21. Superficial
    toward or at the body surface
  22. Deep
    away from or below the body surface (the opposite of superficial)
  23. Sagittal section
    cut made along the longitudinal plane dividing the body into right and left parts
  24. Midsagittal section
    sagittal section made down the median of the body
  25. Transverse section
    (cross section)
    cut made along a horizontal plane to divide the body into upper and lower regions
  26. Frontal section
    (coronal sectiona)
    cut made along a longitudinal plane that divides the body into front and back regions
  27. Dorsal body cavity
    contains the cranial and spinal column
  28. Ventral body cavity
    contains all the structures within the chest and abdomen; diaphragm divides the ventral cavity into the thoracic cavity (superior to the diaphragm); below the diaphragm are the abdominal and pelvic cavities.
  29. Adaptation
    receive, interpret, and respond to internal and external stimuli via the nervous system
  30. Circulation
    transport oxygen and other nutrients to tissues via the cardiovascularsystem
  31. Elimination
    remove metabolic wastes from the body via renal system
  32. Locomotion
    allow voluntary and involuntary movement of body via the musculoskeletal and neurological systems
  33. Nutrition
    take in and break down nutrients to be used for metabolism via the digestive system
  34. Oxygenation
    take in the oxygen and expel carbon dioxide via the respiratory system
  35. Regulation
    hormonal control of body functions via endocrine system
  36. Self-duplication
    production of offspring via the reproductive system
  37. When all the needs of the body are met and all of the organ systems are working properly, the body is in a stable state known as
  38. Circulatory System
    • - also called cardiovascular system
    • - transportation highway for the entire body
    • - consists of the heart, blood vessel (arteries, veines, and arterioles), and blood
    • - supports the circulation and distribution of various substances (oxygen, hormones, and nutrients) throughout the body
    • - Removes waste such as lactic acid
    • - Oxygen and nutrients for the skin travel through blood vessels
  39. Heart
    • - an organ that contracts and pumps blood throughout the body
    • - rhythmic contractions of the heart enable blood to be transported throughout the body
    • - four chambers: right and left atriums and right and left ventricles
    • - four valves (to prevent back flow of blood into the chambers): tricuspid, pulmonary, mitral, aortic

    • Flow of blood:
    • 1. deoyxgenated blood enters through the superior and inferior vena cava
    • 2. blood travels to the right atrium
    • 3. flows through the tricuspid valve
    • 4. into the right ventricle
    • 5. pushed through the right pulmonary valve into the pulmonary artery and lungs when the right ventral contracts
    • 6. picks of oxygen
    • 7. oxygenated blood is carried back to the heart by the pulmonary veins
    • 8. into the left atrium
    • 9. through the mitral valve
    • 10. into the left ventricle
    • 11. contrtaction of the left ventricle forces blood through the aortic valve, through the aorta, and out to the entire body
  40. Arteries
    blood vessels transport blood away from the heart to the capillaries
  41. Veins
    blood vessels that transport blood from the capillaries back to the heart
  42. Capillaries
    • - tiny blood vessels that transport blood from arteries to veins
    • - location for exchange of oxygen, carbon dioxide, fluid, and nutrients
  43. Digestive system
    • -composed of the alimentary canal (mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine- duodenum, jejunum, and ileum, large intestine- colon, and anus) and accesory structures (teeth, salivary glands, pancreas, liver, and gallbladder)
    • - manufactures enzymes that break down food for nutrients to be easily passed into the blood for use throughout the body.
    • - food not digested is expelled through the anus
    • - absorption of nutrients occurs in the small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum)
    • - absorption of water (occurs in the colon) affects water and electrolyte balance.  The storage and formation of feces also occurs.
    • - the liver produces bile to help break down fats
    • - the liver synthesizes urea that must be excreted by the kidneys
    • - the prancreas delivers enzymes to the small intestine to aid in digestion
    • - provides nutrients necessary for the mineralization of bones
  44. Peristalsis
    • - rhythmic contractions that propel food toward the colon and anus
    • - the contractions move food along the gastrointestinal tract as food is mechanically and chemically broken down
  45. 7 parts involved in digestion
    • 1. digestion - mechanical and chemical break down of food, teeth grind, chew, tear food into smaller pieces to increase the surface area upon which enzymes can act
    • 2. enzymes - chemicals that break down proteins, carbohydrates, and fats into nutrients to be absorbed through the wall of the intestines into the bloodstream.  Salvary amylase from the parotid salivary glands, begins chemical digestion of carbohydrates.  Cells in the stomach secrete mucus for lubrication, an enzyme begins protein digestion (protease), hydrochloric acid, and intrinsic factor (increase the absorption of vitamin B12). 
    • 3. Chyme - a mixture of food, chemicals, and enzymes in the stomach, remains in the stomach longer than carbohydrates-laden chyme.
    • 4. Pyloric sphincter - release chyme from the tomach into the small intestione.
    • 5. Duodenum - releases two hormones: secretin and cholecystokinin (CCK).  The secretion triggers the pancreas to release bicarbonate to neutralize the acid.
    • 6. Villi - finger-like projections to aid in absorption of the nutrients in the small intestine
    • 7. Microvilli- increase surface area for absorption.  Each villus contains arterioles and lymphatic vessels for absorption.
  46. Endocrine system
    • - controls body function
    • - glands such as the pineal, pituitary, thalamus, hypothalamus, thyroid, thymus, and adrenak regulate processes suchas growth and metabolism.
    • - the pancreas, testic, and ovaries also have endocrine functions, even though they are part of other body systems.
    • -in women, estrogen helps to preserve vascular health
    • -
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