Nutrition 1020

  1. What is Glucose Used for?
    Immediate carbohydrate energy &/or glycogen storage (Liver & Muscle).

    Brain, central nervous system (CNS), & red blood cell (RBC) function (liver glycogen).

    – Requires a minimum of 100-150 grams carbohydrate day(continuous).

    Muscle functioning (muscle glycogen).

    Fat synthesis (excess energy intake).
  2. What is Glycogen?
    • The storage form of glucose, “animal starch”.

    • Made from dietary carbohydrate sources.

    – All carbohydrate is converted to glucose then stored as glycogen or used immediately.

    **Diets should be planned to meet the 45-65%of Calories AMDR & minimally the DRI for carbohydrate (130 gm/day for adults).
  3. Whole grain complex carbohydrates are

    Carbohydrate is protein sparing.
  4. Where is Glycogen Stored?
    • • The Liver (100 grams; 400 Calories).
    • – Is used for blood sugar (glucose) regulation.

    • The Muscle (1-4 grams/100 grams of muscle).

    • – The level increases with high carbohydrate diets & exercise.
    • – Is used for the working muscle.
  5. How Does the Body Regulate Blood Sugar?
    • By hormones that are produced in the pancreas.

    • The hormones effect the liver & muscle cells.

    • Insulin: decreases blood sugar levels.
    • Glucagon: increases blood sugar level.
  6. Blood Sugar Regulation

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  7. Blood Sugar Regulation

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  8. Carbohydrate Related Disorders
    • Lactose Intolerance & Lactose Mal-digestion

    • Hypoglycemia

    • Diabetes
  9. Lactose Intolerance

    • Lactase deficiency (completely missing in“intolerance” while low activity/levels in “mal-digestion”) is strongly tied to evolution with several gene mutations identified.
  10. Lactose Intolerance

    Gas, bloating, cramps, diarrhea.
  11. Lactose Intolerance

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  12. Dairy Products and Lactose Intolerance use a product like

    • • Consume yogurt with live cultures
    • • Consume aged cheese OR
    • • Avoid dairy products
  13. Lactose intolerance & mal-digestion are due to an inability to
    digest milk sugar(lactose) not an allergic reaction to milk protein (casein).
  14. An allergy elicits an
    immune reaction & involves antigens & antibodies.

    Antibody: Protein structures produced by immune cells that inactivate antigens(allergens).

    Antigen (allergen): Foreign protein substances that elicit an immune reaction.
  15. Allergic responses cause the formation of mucous in
    the respiratory tract, GI distress &/or hives.
  16. Antibody and Allergen in an Allergic Immune Response

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  17. Hypoglycemia
    low blood sugar

    Blood sugar levels drop after eating sugar.

    – Too much insulin is secreted in response to sugar consumption. Hyperinsulinemia.
  18. Hypoglycemia
    low blood sugar

    Liver stores of glycogen are depleted, the ability to maintain blood sugar is diminished.

    – Happens to everyone in between meals or when food has not been consumed. 4-6 hours during the day, 10-12 hours with sleep.
  19. Hypoglycemia
    low blood sugar

    Drug Induced:
    Low blood sugar from a drug reaction.

    – Improper insulin or oral hypoglycemic drug use with diabetes.

    – Anti-inflammatory and thyroid medications are known to cause hypoglycemia.
  20. Diabetes
    A chronic disease:

    Is characterized by
    hyperglycemia (high blood sugar).

    • Affects >20 million Americans, many unaware.

    • Increases heart disease, stroke, kidney disease,retinopathy, and neuropathy.

    • Decreases life expectancy.

    • Occurs as type 1 or type 2diabetes.
  21. Diabetes Type I:

    Less common
    • • ~5% of cases
    • • Juvenile onset
    • • Is more difficult to control
    • • Insulin administration is essential in the control of blood sugar (Insulin-dependent diabetes)
    • • Is due to a genetic and/or viral factor causing auto immunity directed against the pancreatic beta cells
  22. Physiology of Type 1 Diabetes

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  23. Physiology of Type 1 Diabetes

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  24. Diabetes Type 2

    Very Common
    • • ~95% of cases
    • • Typically adult onset
    • • May be controlled with lifestyle changes& oral hypoglycemic agents
    • • Is caused by insulin resistance (decreased insulin receptor response)
    • • Is predisposed by obesity & genetics.
  25. Physiology of Type 2 Diabetes

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  26. Physiology of Type 2 Diabetes

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  27. Indications of Diabetes
    • Fasting glucose level ≥ 126 mg/dl.

    • 2 hour post prandial (fed) blood glucose level ≥ 200 mg/dl.

    • **Normal Blood Glucose is 70-99 mg/dl
    • Pre-Diabetes is 100-125 mg/d
  28. Overweight Contributes to Hyperglycemia:

    Type II Diabetes

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  29. Food Composition
    The Glycemic Response/Index

    Simple sugars & foods with a high glycemic index burn
    up fast & elicit an insulin response.
  30. Food Composition
    The Glycemic Response/Index

    Complex carbohydrates sustain
    energy better.
  31. What is the Glycemic Response/Index?
    • The rise in blood sugar in response to food as compared to glucose.

    • Glucose is assigned 100.

    • The Glycemic Index of a food can be useful to anyone concerned with blood sugar control.
  32. Glycemic Response of Foods

    Those with diabetes should eat foods that have a lower
    glycemic response or slower entrance of glucose into the bloodstream.

    • Foods with high protein, fat, & fiber lower the glycemic response.
  33. Glycemic Index of Foods

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Card Set
Nutrition 1020
Carbohydrate Storage and Disorders 3.4