1. Photosynthesis is the
    process by which plants make carbohydrate structures.
  2. Photosynthesis requires

    CO2 + H2O + sunlight = carbohydrates in plants.

    sugars, starch fiber
  3. Dietary Fiber:
    The residue after “in vivo”treatment. Animal tested.
  4. Functional Fiber:
    Indigestible carbohydrate isolated from natural sources or synthetic indigestible carbohydrate.

    • Has beneficial physiological effects in humans.

    • An example of indigestible carbohydrate isolated from a natural source is cellulose gel added to a processed food.
  5. Total Fiber:
    • Is the combination of dietary & functional fiber in food.

    • Is reflected as the fiber content value on food package labels in the Nutrition Facts panel.
  6. Categories of Fiber:

    Solubility- Softens and Gels in water. Does attract water.

    Fiber Sources- Pectins, Gums, Mucilages

    Food Sources- Fruits (like apple pectin), vegetable, legumes, and oats.
  7. Categories of Fiber:

    Solubility- Does not soften or gel in water. Does attract water.

    Fiber Sources- Cellulose Hemi-cellulose, Lignins

    Food Sources- Whole grain foods, celery strings, apple peels
  8. Fiber Recommendations
    • The DRI for total fiber intake:

    • Adult ♂ is 38 grams. Adult ♀ is 25 grams.

    • Personalized DRI is 1.4 grams total fiber per 100 Calories consumed.

    • Example: A person eating 4200 Calories in1 day should consume 59 grams of fiber.
  9. High Fiber Intake & Foods
    • High fiber intake is well over 2 grams/100 Calories consumed.

    • High fiber foods provide > 2 gm fiber/serving.

    • High fiber foods are easy to assess on the food package label by comparing the grams of fiber with reference to the Calories provided/serving.
  10. Fiber Food Sources
    • Grains
    • Cereal
    • Legumes
    • Fruits
    • Vegetables

    *Most American under consume these types of foods and thus fiber. The average American fiber intake is 11-13 gm/day.
  11. Food Sources & Amounts of Fiber

    Picture of grains example
    Image Upload 1
  12. Food Sources & Amounts of Fiber

    Picture of vegetable example
    Image Upload 2
  13. Food Sources & Amounts of Fiber

    Picture of fruit
    Image Upload 3
  14. Benefits-Actions of Fiber:

    • Increases the volume of food in the diet without adding Calories, thus it decreases the caloric density of the food.

    • Bulks the stool volume.

    Both soluble & insoluble fiber provide these benefits.
  15. Benefits-Actions of Fiber:

    Stool Softener
    • Complex carbohydrate chemical structures are hydrophillic (binds water or attracts water) creating a softer stool that is easier to move along the G.I. tract.

    • Relieves constipation,hemorrhoids, & diverticulosis.

    Both soluble & insoluble fiber provide these benefits.
  16. Benefits-Actions of Fiber:

    Decreases transit time
    • Food, the bolus, chyme and feces move through the GI tract faster,thus the transit time is reduced.

    • Decreases time in the colon.

    • Reduces exposure time to potential carcinogens thus reduces colon cancer.

    Both soluble & insoluble fiber provide these benefits.
  17. Benefits-Actions of Fiber:

    Improves GI tract muscle tone
    • The larger volume of bulk and the softer mass moving through the “tube” allows the GI tract muscles to exercise efficiently.

    Both soluble & insoluble fiber provide this benefit.
  18. Benefits-Actions of Fiber:

    • Reduces heart disease risk by binding cholesterol-rich bile in the GI tract.

    • Normally, bile is reabsorbed.

    • Bile binds tightly to soluble fiber & cannot be reabsorb.

    • Thus, a large source of cholesterol can be excreted in the feces.

    Soluble fiber provides this benefit.
  19. Benefits-Actions of Fiber:

    Heart-Health (picture)
    Image Upload 4
  20. Benefits-Actions of Fiber:

    Increases gastric emptying time.
    • It takes a longer time for the chyme to leave the stomach.

    • The rate of glucose absorption is slowed.

    • This is beneficial with diabetes &reactive hypoglycemia.

    Soluble fiber provides this benefit.
  21. Negative Effects of too Much Fiber
    • Causes gas & bloating (due to decomposition of fiber by gastrointestinal microbes)

    • Too large & frequent bowel movements

    • Binds positively charged minerals

    • Binds beta-carotene

    • Decreases caloric value

    • Can cause GI tract blockages without adequate water intake

    Too much soluble or insoluble fiber can cause negative effects
  22. Whole Grain Processing:

    Wheat kernels are refined by
    removing the husk, bran, & germ.

    • The endosperm (containing mostly starch &protein) remains.

    • Iron, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folate,vitamin B6, magnesium, zinc, & fiber are lost.
  23. Whole Grain Processing:

    Some nutrients are added back into
    refined grain products as a result of the Enrichment act of 1942.

    Added: iron, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folate

    Not Added: vitamin B6, magnesium, zinc, fiber
  24. Processing a Wheat Kernel

    Image Upload 5
  25. % Nutrients in whole grain, enriched white & unenriched white breads
    Whole grain is the best
Card Set
Photosynthesis and Fiber 3.3