True or False: Pyramidal cells generally relay information locally within the cerebral cortex functioning as interneurons while granule cells (i.e. non-pyramidal cells) function as the major output system for the cerebral cortex.
What are some general characteristics of pyramidal neurons?
pyramidal cell body
apical and basal dendrites
axons make up white matter
What are some general characteristics of non-pyramidal neurons in the cerebral cortex?
i.e. granule cells
e.g. Stellate, basket, and chandelier cells
spiny or non-spiny dendrites
relay information locally
In which layers of the neocortex do cortico-cortical afferent fibers synapse/terminate?
In which layers of the neocortex do thalamo-cortical afferent fibers synapse/terminate?
In which layers of the neocortex do cortico-cortical efferent fibers originate?
In which layers of the neocortex do cortico-thalamic efferent fibers originate?
In which layers of the neocortex do corticobulbar, corticospinal, corticopontine, corticoreticular, and corticostriatal efferent fibers originate?
True or False: The neocortex makes up about 90% of the cerebral cortex and is organized into 6 layers based on neuronal inputs and outputs, with layer I being just deep to the pial surface and layer VI being just superficial to the white matter boundary.
What are the inputs and outputs of the parietal association cortex?
(strong connections) frontal cortex
Anosognosia (i.e. lack of awareness of illness or condition) and astereognosis (i.e. inability to identify object by touch without visual input) are associated with damage to which area of the brain?
parietal association cortex
What are some functions of the parietal association cortex?
spatial relations, including extrapersonal space and body image (non-dominant hemisphere esp. important)
development of movement plan
higher sensory function (polysensory)
language function (especially inferiorly, close to Wernicke's area)
Which hemifields do each of the parietal association areas represent in spatial representation?
left parietal association area: represents right hemifield
right parietal association area: represents left hemifield AND right hemifield
(i.e. with spatial orientation there are 2 cortical representations of the right hemifield but only 1 representation of the left hemifield)
What type of neurons are responsible for encoding upcoming saccade direction during delay periods and play a role in the development of a movement plan?
lateral intraparietal (LIP) neurons
(parietal association cortex)
What part of the cerebral cortex, specifically, is associated with intended movements and awareness of movement?
posterior parietal cortex
Unconscious movement is produced when what part of the cerebral cortex is stimulated?
What are the inputs and outputs for the prefrontal cortex?
dopamine signals (SNpr)
What are the 2 regions of the prefrontal association cortex and what are their respective roles?
dorsolateral: strategic planning for higher motor and cognitive behavior, working memory (lesion --> impulsiveness, disinhibition)