Community Nutrition Exam 1 Review

  1. Purpose of community nutrition?
    Strives to enhance health and prevent disease by improving the public's eating habits
  2. What is a community?
    People that interact with shared values (global, national, regional, local)
  3. What is a policy?
    • A course of action chosen by public authorities to address a given population.
    • Ex: iodized salt, fortified milk, seat belt laws, Medicare
  4. What is community nutrition?
    Strives to prevent disease and to improve the health, nutrition, and well-being of individuals and groups within communities
  5. What is good health?
    A state of physical, mental and social well-being, not the absence of disease
  6. What are some WHO prerequisites for health?
    Freedom from the fear of war, the satisfaction of basic needs, the right to find meaningful work and perform a useful role in society, equal opportunity for all peoples
  7. What is public health?
    Focuses on protecting and promoting people's health through the actions of society.
  8. What is public health nutrition?
    Refers to those community based programs conducted by a government agency whose official mandate is the delivery of health services for individuals living in a particular area
  9. What is Healthy People 2020?
    A national strategy for improving the health of the nation
  10. What are some overarching goals of Healthy People 2020?
    • --Eliminate preventable disease, injury, and premature death
    • --Achieve health equality, eliminate disparities, improve the health of all groups
    • --Create social and physical environments that promote good health for all
    • --Promote health development and healthy behaviors across every stage of life.
  11. What are the primary, secondary, and tertiary measures of health promotion?
    • --Primary: promoting healthy behaviors and environments
    • --Secondary: screening
    • --Tertiary: treating somebody to prevent further complications
  12. Community Needs Assessment?
    An evaluation of the community in terms of its health and nutritional status, needs, and the resources available to address those needs.
  13. Health Status?
    The condition of a population's or individual's health, including estimates of quality of life and physical and psychosocial functioning.
  14. Stakeholders?
    People who have a vested interest in IDing and addressing the nutritional problem
  15. Vital Statistics?
    Figures pertaining to life events, such as births, deaths, and marriages.
  16. What are methods of data collection?
    • --Survey (SMOG test)
    • --Screening
    • --Focus Group
    • --Interviews of Key Informants
    • --Direct Assessment (food log, lab data, clinical signs)
  17. Validity?
    The accuracy of the diet assessment instrument. Does it measure what it's intended to measure?
  18. Nutrition Status?
    The condition of a population's or individuals health as influence by the intake and utilization of nutrients and non nutrients.
  19. Target Population?
    The population that is the focus of an assessment study or intervention.
  20. What are the steps for a Needs Assessment?
    • 1. Define the problem.
    • 2. Set the parameters
    • 3. Collect data
    • 4. Analyze data
    • 5. Share findings
    • 6. Set priorities
    • 7. Choose plan of action
  21. Goals?
    Broad statements of what the activity or program is expected to accomplish.
  22. Objectives?
    Statements of outcomes and activities needed to reach a goal.
  23. Key Informants?
    People who are "in the know" about the community and whose opinions and insights can help direct the needs assessment.
  24. Sensitivity?
    The proportion of individuals in the sample with the disease or condition who have a positive test for it.
  25. Specificity?
    The proportion of individuals in the sample without the disease or condition who have a negative test for it.
  26. Reliability?
    The repeatability or precision of an assessment instrument.
  27. Epidemiology?
    The study of epidemics, or the cause of the disease
  28. Vital Statistics?
    Figures pertaining to life events, such as births, deaths, and marriages.
  29. Case?
    A particular instance of a disease or outcome of interest.
  30. Risk?
    The probability or likelihood of an event occurring in this case, the probability that people will acquire a disease.
  31. Risk Factors?
    Clinically important signs associated with an increased likelihood or acquiring a disease.
  32. Incidence?
    The number of new cases of a disease during a specific time period in a defined population.
  33. Compounding Factors?
    Hidden factors that may affect the outcome.
  34. Prevalence?
    The number of existing cases of a disease or other condition in a given population.
  35. Cohort
    A well-defined group of people who are studies over a period of time to determine their incidence of disease, injury, or death.
  36. What are the steps in epidemiology?
    • 1. Observing
    • 2. Counting cases
    • 3. Relate cases to people at risk
    • 4. Make comparisons 
    • 5. Testes hypothesis
    • 6. Draw scientific inferences
    • 7. Conduct experimental studies
    • 8. Intervene and Evaluate
  37. Cross-sectional?
    A snapshot. Studies variables as they exits in a population at a particular time.
  38. Cohort?
    A moving picture, can be retrospective or prospective. Observational.
  39. Case-control?
    Enrollment in the study based on presence or absence of disease.  Characteristics are compared between cases and controls.
  40. Controlled?
    The most rigorous evaluation of a dietary hypothesis including double blind experiments.
  41. What are the steps in program planning?
    • 1. Review results of community needs assessment (seek partners, negotiate)
    • 2. Define goals and objectives
    • 3. Develop program plan
    • 4. Develop management plan
    • 5. Identify a funding source
    • 6. Implement the program
    • 7. Evaluate effectiveness
  42. Outcome objective?
    • A measurable change in a health or nutritional outcome.
    • Ex: At the end of the program, participants will increase their iron intake by 2mg.
  43. Process objective?
    • The measurable activities carried out by the nutritionists to achieve the outcome objectives.
    • Ex: Classes will be offered once/week at the public health office in Moorhead, MN.
  44. Structure Objectives?
    Measurable activities surrounding the budget, staffing patterns, management systems, use of organizations resources and coordination of program activities.
  45. Goals?
    Broad statements of desired changes or outcomes.
  46. Formative Evaluation?
    • Testing certain elements of a program before it's implemented. 
    • Ex: What you need to do to get an internship during sophomore year.
  47. Process Evaluation?
    • Focus on how the program is delivered.
    • Ex: What is useful? Fill out an evaluation.
  48. Impact Evaluation?
    • Used to determine whether and tho what extent a program or an intervention accomplished its stated goals.
    • Ex: Did the youth incorporate a high iron food?
  49. Outcome Evaluation?
    • Is the process of measuring a programs effectiveness in changing one or more aspects of nutritional or health status.
    • Ex: Because they ate lower sodium foods, did they have lower hypertension?
  50. Structure Evaluation?
    • Determining adequacy of the internal processes and resources needed to deliver the program.
    • Ex: enough personnel?
  51. Fiscal Evaluation?
    • Determining the program's benefits relative to cost. 
    • Ex: For every dollar spent on WIC, $4 are saved in medical costs.
  52. Policy?
    The guiding principle behind regulations and laws. What the gov't intends to accomplish through it's laws, regulations, programs.
  53. Policy Making?
    The process by which authorities decide which actions to take to address a problem
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Community Nutrition Exam 1 Review
review for exam 1