1. I.                   Efforts at Change: Reformers and Government
    • a.      Efforts to improve worst conditions of industrialization from outside working class
    • b.      Criticism of Industrial Revolution from poets, such as Wordsworth
    • c.       Reform-minded individuals, whether factory owners or social reformers in Parliament, campaigned against evils of industrial factory, especially child abuse
  2. Government action
    •                                                               i.      Increase in wealth from industrial Revolution accompanied by increasing number of poor peopleà efforts to document and deal with problems
    • 1.      Reports from civic-minded citizens and parliamentary commissions intensified and demonstrated extent of poverty, degradation, and suffering= reforms succeed
  3. Successes
    • 1.      First: series of factory acts passed between 1802 and 1819 that limited labor for kids between 9 and 16 to 12 hours a day
    • a.      Children under nine forbidden to work
    • b.      Laws stipulated that kids receive instruction in reading and arithmetic during working hours
    • c.       Acts applied only to cotton mills, not to factories or mines where some of the worst abuses were taking place
    • No provision made for enforcing acts through inspection
  4. New legislation passed
    • a.      Factory Act of 1833 strengthened earlier labor legislation
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      All textile factories now included
    • 1.      Kids between 9 and 13 work only 8 hrs a day; 13 and 18 work 12 hours
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      Factory inspectors now appointed with power to fine those who broke law
  5. Another piece of legislation
    a.      Another piece of legislation in 1833 required that children between 9 and 13 have at least 2 hours of elementary education during the working day
  6. 1847 Ten Hours Act
    • a.      1847 Ten Hours Act reduced workday for kids between 13 and 18 to 10 hrs
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Women now included in 10 hr limit
  7. Coal mines Act
    • a.      1842: Coal mines Act eliminated employment of boys under ten and women in mines
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Men would later benefit from move to restrict hrs.
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