Who was the key political/ military figure of the Hellenistic period?
Alexander the Great
What was the Hellenistic period and how did that impact the NT?
- Greek culture = greek language too
- Missionary by nature-->new modern way of life
- Led to coming of Israel
- New Greek bible became the standard text (Septuagint)
Who were the Ptolemies and the Selucids?
- P: One of Alexander's most trusted generals
- Governor of Egypt
- Brought hellenistic culture and ruined traditional jewish culture
- Hebrew scriptures-->translated to Greek
- S: Ruled Babylon
- Founded city of Antioch
Who were the Maccabees and why are they important to Judaism?
- Outlines the history of the story of Jew's resistance to their Seleucid oppressors (resistance of Hellenism)
- Retold every year at the feast of Hanukkah
When did Rome conquer?
Who was Herod the Great and when did he rule?
- 37-4 BC (33 years)
- built a series of fortresses around Judea
- built Caesarea
- heavily taxed citizens to pay for all of his buildings
- Jesus was born during his reign
How did Herod’s kingdom divide and to whom did it divide?
Herod died and his three sons divided the kingdom
Who led the first revolt against Rome and why?
- personal corruption and contempt for the Jews
Who led the second revolt against Rome and why?
- To found a Roman colony in Jerusalem and rebuild the city with Pagan temples
5 geographical zones of Jesus' homeland
- 1. Coastal plain
- 2. Coastal hills
- 3. Central mountains
- 4. Jordan Valley
- 5. Eastern Plateau
Where is Galilee?
Where is the Jordan river?
Where is Emmaus?
The Coastal hills
Where were the fishing villages located?
The coastal plain
How could you tell the difference between a Pharisee and a Sadducee?
- Pharisees focused on external formalities & more religious than others
- Sadducees were educated elites and landowners
How would one distinguish the Essenes from the typical Jew?
lived isolated from the Gentile population and most Jewish groups
In which of the political movements of Jesus’ day would a “zealot” be found?
Jewish warriors who made their last stand in the famous siege at the mtn fortress of Masada
What are the sicarii?
an extremist splinter group of the Jewish Zealots, who attempted to expel the Romans and their partisans from Judea using concealed daggers (sicae)
What is a Samaritan and why do they not get along with the Jews?
- Persians that moved in Samaria who revised the Hebrew Scriptures and assimilated w/the Israelites
- B/c they assimilated w/the Israelites and built a rival temple
Describe a Herodian:
- Opponents of Jesus
- Political patrons
- only saw benefits of a Jewish political life in a Roman province
Who were the major pagan sources we covered in class (and in the text) that attested to Jesus?
Who was the major Jewish historian that we referenced with respect to Jesus?
What is the Babylonian Talmud and how might that reference Jesus?
- legal requirements before stoning/killing for any information that might acquit him
- no one brought forward any info in the 40 days before Jesus was hung that would acquit him
Name the major second and third century Christian sources that referenced Jesus. How are these different from the first century gospels?
- Gospel of Peter-->oldest form of the passion story
- Gospel of Thomas-->provides sayings of Jesus that are authentic and historically reliable
HISTORICAL order of the gospels?
- (1) Mark
- (2) Matthew
- (3) Luke
- (4) John
What are the 9 marks of the church’s success in preserving accurate accounts of Jesus’ teaching and life, according to your textbook authors?
- (1) Stylistic forms of Jesus' sayings
- (2) Terminology of tradition
- (3) Function of the apostles
- (4) Cultural role of memory
- (5) Eyewitnesses & the lapse of time
- (6) Written records
- (7) Christian prophecy & caution
- (8) Respect for the sayings of Jesus
- (9) Dissimilarity of interests
What is Q?
- "quelle" meaning source
- "pre-gospel" collection of Jesus' sayings that stood alongside Mark
What are the elements that first century jews would have thought of when hearing that Jesus taught with or had “authority”?
- conveyed by a rabbi
- communicated his personality and his status to the disciple
Give some characteristics (that your authors mention) of Jesus’ teaching style?
- metaphors and similes
- gross exaggeration
What was a favorite and popular genre of teaching that Jesus employed?
What are some of the main defining elements of the Kingdom of God, a central theme for Jesus?
- idea that God ruled and sustained universe
- only rightful king of his people
- apocalypse-->God's coming
How does Jesus talk about the ethics of the kingdom of God? The disciples or followers within the kingdom?
- righteousness of inner life
- renewed heart
- curb lust
- love your enemies
- repent and become a disciple
- give up wealth
- LOVE GOD WHOLLY
How does the cross factor into this kingdom, since it is counterproductive for your king to die?
sacrificial lamb who was slain
What does Christology mean? And what have Christians for centuries believed about Jesus?
- the reflection of Jesus' earthly life due to the resurrection
- his true identity
What is the setting of Matthew's gospel and his relationship to Judaism?
- Palestine or Syria
- Written in Hebrew dialect
- His theology rejects Judaism in favor of the church
- Jesus' interaction with Jewish leaders
What makes Mark’s gospel distinctly to gentiles rather than jews?
- Most of his readers spoke Greek
- Outlines Jewish rituals for those who don't understand Judaism
- Doesn't explain who Pilate or Pharisees are
Authorship and date of Matthew
- Matthew or anonymous
Authorship and date of Mark
- Mark as a translator for Peter
Authorship and date of Luke and Acts
Authorship and date of John
- disciple who Jesus loved
- "beloved disciple"
What makes John different?
- Deeper meaning of Jesus' life
- Jesus as the Word of God
- Word becomes flesh
- Crucifixion as a royal coronation not a tragedy
What do we call Matthew, Mark, and Luke together?
Where is John's setting?
What are the two sections into which your authors split the book of John?
- Ch. 1-12 Public teaching
- Ch. 13-17 Private speaking
What are some of the main themes in John? Where does John affirm the deity of Jesus Christ?
- God appeared to us in human form
- Glory of God seen through Christ
- (1) John the Baptist
- (2) The person of Christ
- (3) The Holy Spirit
- (4) The sacraments
- (5) Our future hope: eschatology
- (6) Irony
Paul's world - social structure
- Wives remain faithful to husbands
- Husbands can do what they want
- Father has all authority
- Being born in Roman empire didn't make you a citizen
- Born into it
- Buy into it
- Patrons were respected by number of clients that followed them
- Humiliores were low status
- Honestiores were high status
- Libertini were freed men who were once slaves
Paul's world - government
- Emperor (Caesar) was the supreme military authority
- Senate ruled over all affairs
- Provinces and vassal states showed boundaries
- Cities were political and economic backbone of Roman Empire
- Colonies-Roman law
- Free cities-governed themselves
Paul's world - religion
- full of idols
- atheists were not common
Difference between Christians and Jews?
- Neither agreed with pagans
- Christians met in private houses, not synagogues
- Christians believed you could worship anywhere, not just in the temple
- Priesthood has hereditary for Jews
Difference between pagans and jews?
- Jews only sacrifice in temple
- Jews worshipped Yahweh
Difference between Christians and Pagans?
- Pagans had immoral Gods (god of drunkenness)
- Pagans had transactions/favors with their Gods
- Pagans had to keep Gods on their side
- Christians believed in self-sacrificial love
What was Paul's nickname?
Struck blind and led to Damascus
Paul's trips to Jerusalem?
- Jerusalem church accepts him
- Spoke about Jesus as the Messiah
- Missionary to Gentiles
- Arrested and imprisoned in Caesarea
authorship, date, setting of Romans?
authorship, date, setting of 1 Corinthians?
authorship, date, setting of 2 Corinthians?
authorship, date, setting of Galatians?
authorship, date, setting of Ephesians?
authorship, date, setting of Colossians?
Themes of Matthew? (2)
- "fulfillment " formula
- Song of God & Messiah
Themes of Luke? (3)
- Jesus is new prophet of God
- Jesus brings salvation & kingdom of God
- Jesus cares for the outcasts of society
Themes of John? (5)
- OT Allusions
- "I AM" statements
- Jesus' Missionary Task
- Messianic signs
- New Creation
Themes of Romans? (3)
- Justification by grace alone by faith alone
- Salvation is for both jews and gentiles
- contrast b/w 2 human communities
Themes of 1st Corinthians? (4)
- Salvation by grace alone, by grace alone, in Christ alone
- New creation in Christ
- Abraham's example of justification by grace through faith
- Practical: defense of Christian (liberty)
Themes of Ephesians? (4)
- In Christ
- Union w/Christ = Unity w/Church
- Understandings of Church
- Spiritual battle
Themes of Colossians? (3)
- Christ is Lord of Creation
- The sufficiency of Christ for salvation and sanctification
- Living as new creations in Christ