1. List 4 of the major modern psychological schools of thought, their founder(s) and essential components
    • Psychodynamic - Sigmund Freud [influence of unconscious mind on behavior]
    • Behavioral - B. F. Skinner, John B. Watson & Ivan Pavlov [measure only observable behavior]
    • Humanistic - Abraham Maslov, Carl Rogers[self-actualization, being the best a person can be]
    • Cognitive - Ulric (Dick) Neisser [focused on internal states, such as motivation, problem solving, decision-making, thinking, and attention]
  2. Explain two theories explaining why we dream.
    Adaptive Theory - theory of sleep proposing that animals and humans evolved sleep patterns to avoid predators by sleeping when predators are most active

    Restorative Theory - suggests that during the day, wear and tear on our bodily tissues and organs leads to damage, then at night during sleep, the body repairs these damaged tissues and cells
  3. List each of the 5 categories of addictive substances with an example within each category
    • Stimulant - Caffeine: coffee & tea
    • Depressant - Alcohol: beer, wine, spirits
    • Narcotic - Morphine
    • Hallucinogen - LCD
    • Other: Sugar
  4. Explain what an SSRI is and how it works
    • selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor
    • a drug that stops the reuptake of certain serotonine so its around for later (and may be used throughout the day to keep a person's mood stable)
  5. List the parts of the Limbic System and their functions
    • Thalamus
    • Hypothalamus
    • Hippocampus
    • Amygdala
    • Cingulate Cortex
  6. Thalamus
    • TRIAGE nurse: ALL INCOMING INFO here first
    • Regulates levels of awareness, attention, motivation, and emotional aspects of sensations
  7. Hypothalamus
    • Monitors INTERNAL systems
    • Responsible for motivational behavior such as sleep, hunger, thirst, and sex
  8. Hippocampus
    • Helps form new memories
    • Responsible for taking things from Working Memory into Long-term Memory - the storage of memory for location of objects
  9. Amygdala
    • Responsible for fear responses and memory of fear; also the pleasure center
    • Fight or Flight
    • Encodes emotional messages into Long-term Memory
  10. Cingulate Cortex
    emotional and cognitive functioning
  11. Image Upload 2
    Image Upload 4
  12. Describe a possible research experiment using one of the methods presented and each step of the scientific method. Include IV and DV.
    Method: Laboratory (turns out the idea is to completely make something up on your own TT_TT)
    • 1.Question: How does REM and nREM sleep affect a person's emotions?
    • 2.Hypothesis: REM and nREM affect an individual's emotions
    • 3. Test: Wake a person up during REM sleep, later wake a person up during nREM sleep. Give a 3 letter sequence to allow them to finish a word to generate the overall emotional impact of the person.
    • 4. Conclusion: REM sleep - active amygdala, produced negative emotions; nREM - positive emotions
    • 5. Report results: test and retest to create reliability. Share findings and offer to the community of psychologists to allow them to replicate and authenticate your results.
Card Set
Psych220 Midterm essay questions notecards