Psych220 CH 6 MIDTERM

  1. Information-processing model
    processes like a computer in 3 stages
  2. 3 stages of information-processing model
    • Sensory Memory [CD drive, monitor cord]
    • Short-term Memory [RAM]
    • Long-term Memory [Hard Drive]
  3. Image Upload 2
    Image Upload 4
  4. Encoding
    getting information into memory
  5. Sensory Memory
    • 1st stage of memory
    • Iconic memory
    • Echoic memory
  6. Iconic Memory
    • visual sensory memory, lasting only a fraction of a second
    • capacity: everything that can be seen at one time
    • duration: information that just entered iconic will be pushed out quickly by new information
    • eg. artwork
  7. Echoic Memory
    • the brief memory of something a person has just heard
    • capacity: limited to what can be heard at any one moment and is smaller than the capacity of iconic memory
    • duration: longer than iconic (2-4 seconds)
    • eg. music, conversation
  8. Short-term Memory
    • 2nd stage of memory
    • information is held for brief periods of time while being used
    • capacity: ~ 7 items/pieces of info (+/- 2 more)
  9. Working Memory
    the memory system used for holding and manipulating information while various mental tasks are carried out.
  10. Maintenance Rhearsal
    practice of saying some information to be remembered over and over in one's head
  11. Chunking
    bits of information are combined into meaningful units, so that more information can be held in Short-term Memory
  12. Long-term Memory
    the system of memory into which all the information is placed to be kept more or less permanently
  13. Things that help us remember
    • Encoding specificity
    • State-dependent learning
    • Mnemonic devices
  14. Encoding Specificity
    things are remembered better when recalled in the same location
  15. State-dependent learning
    memories formed during a sparticular physiological or psychological state will be easier to recall while in a similar state
  16. Mnemonic Devices
    • Linking
    • Peg-word method
    • Method of Loci
    • Verbal/Rhythmic organization
    • Put it to music
  17. Linking
    • make a list to be remembered and link the words in some way by making it into a sentence
    • the crazier, the easier to memorize
  18. Peg-word Method
    memorize a series of peg words that can be used as keys for remembering items associated with them
  19. Method of Loci
    • put notes around home, by each window as you walk through
    • visual memory in order of remembering the number of windows in your home
  20. Verbal/Rhythmic organization
    • set info to a rhyme
    • eg. "i" before "e" except after "c"
  21. Put it to music
    make up a little song with the information you want to remember
  22. Schema
    • A structured cluster of pre-conceived ideas.
    • An organized pattern of thought or behavior.
  23. Reasons people forget
    • Encoding Failure
    • Memory Trace Decay Theory
    • Proactive Interference
    • Retroactive Interference
  24. Encoding Failure
    Failure to process information into memory
  25. Memory Trace Decay Theory
    Not accessed => decays from storage system
  26. Proactive Interference
    • Older info interferes with learning of new info
    • eg. Old habit interferes with new change
    • 1st-automatic car, then learn stick-shift
  27. Retroactive Interference
    • Newer info interferes with retrieval of older info
    • eg. stick-shift car in repair; difficulty re-learning automatic driving
Card Set
Psych220 CH 6 MIDTERM
Psych220 midterm Chapter 6 notecards