1. Separation
    • a.      At same time that members of the industrial middle class were trying to reduce barriers between selves and landed elite, they also tried to separate selves from laboring class below them
    •                                                               i.      Working class: mix of groups in first half of 19th
  2. Factory workers
    • 1.      Factory workers would form industrial proletariat, but in first half of century, they didn’t constitute majority of working class
    • a.      2.8 million agricultural laborers and 1 million domestic servants but only 811,000 workers in cotton and woolen industries in 1851 (1/3 still working in small workshops or at home)
  3. Artisans and craftspeople
    • a.      In cities, artisans or craftspeople were largest group of urban workers during first half of 19th
    •                                                               i.      Worked in many small industries, like shoemaking
    •                                                             ii.      Some craftspeople, especially those employed in luxury trades like clock making, formed a kind of aristocracy of labor and earned higher wages than others
  4. Artisans not factory workers
    • 1.      Artisans weren’t factory workers; they were traditionally organized in guilds, where they passed skills to apprentices
    • a.      But guilds increasingly losing power, especially in industrialized countries
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Fearful of losing out to new factories, artisans supported movements against industrialization
    • 1.      Industrialists welcomed decline of skilled craftspeople 
  5. Servants
    •                                                               i.      Servants also formed another large group of urban workers
    • 1.      Many= women from countryside who were dependent on upper and middle-class employers
  6. a.      Working Conditions for the Industrial Working Class
    •                                                               i.      Wretched; dreadful
    •                                                             ii.      Work hours: 12-16 hours a day, 6 days a week, .5 hr for lunch and dinner
    •                                                           iii.      No security of employment and no minimum wage
    •                                                           iv.      Worst conditions in cotton mills, with terrible temperatures
    • 1.      Mills dirty, dusty, and unhealthy
  7. Coal mines: harsh
    • 1.      Introduction of steam power= steam-powered engines mechanically lifted coal to the top
    • 2.      Inside: men bore burden of digging the coal out while horses, mules, women, and children hauled coal carts on rails to the lift
    • 3.      Dangers: cave-ins, explosions, and gas fumes
    • 4.      Cramped conditions and constant dampness in mines= deformed bodies and ruined lungs
  8. Children and women
    •                                                               i.      Children and women employed
    • 1.      Children: important part of family economy in preindustrial times, working in the fields or carding and spinning wool at home with the growth of the cottage industry
    • a.      In industrial revolution, child labor exploited more than ever systematically
  9. Owners of cotton factories
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Owners of cotton factories liked children
    • 1.      Delicate touch as spinners of cotton
    • 2.      Smaller size= easily crawl under machines to gather loose cotton
    • 3.      Easily broken to factory work
    • 4.      Represented cheap supply of labor
    • a.      1821: half of Brit population under 20
  10. Chidren supply
    • a.      Children made an abundant supply of labor and paid 1/6-1/3 of ma’s pay
    • b.      1838: children under 18 made up 29% of total workforce
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Children as young as seven worked 12-15 hrs a day, 6 days a week, in cotton mills
  11. Pauper apprentices
    • a.      Terrible was use of so-called pauper apprentices
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Orphans or children abandoned by parents who wound up in care of local parishes
    • 1.      To save upkeep, parishes apprenticed them to factory owners looking for cheap labor
    • a.      These kids worked long hrs under strict discipline and received inadequate food and recreation
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                               i.      Many deformed from being kept too long in contorted positions
  12. Parliament remedies
    • a.      Parliament eventually remedied some of the worst ills of child abuse in factories and mines
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Legislation of the 1830s and ‘40s affected child labor in textile factories and mines
    • 1.      Did not touch use of kids in small workshops or nonfactory trades that were not protected 
  13. Worse conditions
    • a.      Since trades in competition with new factories, conditions there were even worse
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                               i.      Pottery works not investigated until 1860s when 17% of workers were under 11
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                             ii.      Child labor legislation enacted in 1864 included pottery works
  14. 1830
    • 1.      1830: women and kids made up 2/3 of cotton industry’s labor
    • a.      As number of kids declined under Factory Act of 1833, their places were taken by women, who dominated labor forces of the early factories (50% in textile factories before 1870)
  15. Mostly unskilled
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Mostly unskilled labor and paid half or less of man’s pay
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      Excessive working hours for women were outlawed in 1844, but only in textile factories and mines; not until 1867 were they outlawed in craft workshops
  16. Employment of kids
    • 1.      Employment of kids and women represents continuation of preindustrial kinship pattern
    • a.      Cottage industry always s involved efforts of entire family and it seemed natural to continue it
    • b.      Men migrating from countryside to industrial towns and cities took wives and children with them to factory or mines
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      95/136 employees in Robert Peel’s factory were members of same 26 families
  17. Impetus
    • a.      Impetus for this family work came from family itself
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Factory owner Jedediah Strutt opposed to child labor under ten but forced by parents to take kids as young as 7
  18. Employment of several women 
    • 1.      Employment of several women in factories didn’t transform female working patterns
    • a.      Throughout 19th c., traditional types of female labor predominated in the women’s work world (France and Brit)
    • b.      1851: fully 40% of female workforce in Britain consisted of domestic servants
    • c.       In France, the largest group of female workers, 40% worked in agriculture
    • d.      Only 20% of female workers in Britain in factories, and only 10% in France
    • 1.      Most workers were single women; few married women worked outside home
  19. Break up of kinship patterns
    •                                                               i.      Factory acts that limited work hours of kids and women broke up traditional kinship patterns of work à new pattern based on separation of work and home
    • 1.      Men responsible for primary work obligations as women assumed daily control o family and performed low paying jobs like laundry work that could be done at home
    • a.      Domestic industry allowed women to continue their contributions to family survival
    •                                                               i.      Contemporary treatment of kids in general= brutal
    • Beatings were best discipline
  20. Problem of poverty
    • a.      Problem of poverty among working classes addressed in Britain by government action in form of Poor Law Act of 1834, which established workhouses where jobless poor people were forced to live
    •                                                               i.      Intent of policy, based on assumption that poor were responsible for own pitiful conditions, was to make workhouses like prisons and give discipline
  21. Locked in
    • 1.      w/in a few years, despite sporadic opposition, more than 200,000 people locked in workhouses, where families separated, forced to live in dorms, given work assignments, and fed dreadful food
    • a.      children recruited from parish workhouses as cheap labor
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