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  1. The Social Impact of the Industrial Revolution: __
    altered social life of Europe and world
  2. Population Growth
    • a.      Population increases already existed in 18th, but they accelerated in 19th
    •                                                               i.      Recorded due to more accurate record keeping through censuses and collection of births, deaths, and marriages
    • b.      Not due to higher birthrate because birthrates declining after 1790
  3. Growth due to decline in death rates for two reasons
    •                                                               i.      Drop in death rate from famines, epidemics, and war
    • 1.      Major epidemic diseases decreased, but small-scale now and then
    •                                                             ii.      Declined with increase in food supply
    • 1.      More food= more people fed and resistant to disease
    • Famine disappeared, although some in isolated areas
  4. Industrialized areas
    • a.      Industrialized areas experienced change in composition of population
    •                                                               i.      By 1850, proportion of population involved in manufacturing, mining, or building rose to 48% in Britain, 37% in Belgium, and 27% in France
    • 1.      Actual pockets of industrialization were small and decentralized
    • b.      Minimal industrialization in light of growing population= congestion of countryside, where people divided land giving smaller plots; also, mass of landless peasants
    • Overpopulation= MORE rural poverty--> the Great Hunger in Ireland
  5. The Great Hunger in Ireland
    •                                                               i.      One of most oppressed areas in w. Europe
    • 1.      The mostly catholic peasant population rented land from absentee British protestant landlords who only cared about collecting rent
    • a.      Peasants lived in mud hovels in poverty
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Potatoà survival and expansion
    • 1.      Only acre or two of potatoes for familyà Irish married and had kids earlierà growth of population  (doubled to 8 million)
    • a.      Half depended on potato to live
  6. Summer of 1845:
    • 1.      Summer of 1845: potato crop in Ireland struck by blight due to fungus that turned potatoes black
    • a.      Between 1845 and 1851, the Great Famine decimated the Irish population
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                               i.      More than a million died of starvation and disease, and 2 million went to US and Britain 
  7. Of all the European nations
    •                                                               i.      Of all European nations, only Ireland declined in population in 19th
    • 1.      Other countries faced problems of dire poverty and declining standards of living as populations exploded
  8. Emigration
    •                                                               i.      Flight of Irish to Americas: safety route for overpopulation
    •                                                             ii.      Between 1821 and 1850, number of emigrants from Europe averaged 110,000  a year
    • 1.      Most from Ireland and s. Germany, where peasant life reduced to marginal existence
  9. Time of agrarian crisis
    • 1.      Times of agrarian crisis= large emigration
    • 2.      Bad harvests in Europe in 1846-47= several emigrants
    • a.      935,0000 Germans emigrated between 1847 and 1854
    •                                                             ii.      Rural masses sought solution to poverty by moving to towns and cities within their own countries to find work = rapid urbanization 
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