1. Began first in __ and spread to __and __. First on Continent were __, __, and __ states. The first in N. America was the US. 
    • Great Britain
    • Europe
    • United States
    • Belgium, France, and the German
  2. Industrialization on the Continent
    • a.      1815: Low Countries, France, and the German states= agrarian, but some countries developed similarities to Britain
    •                                                               i.      Population growth, expanded their cottage industries, witnessed growth in foreign trade
    • 1.      But Britain moved toward industrialization in 1770s (80s); Continental didn’t  due to disadvantages
  3. Disadvantages were...
    • a.      Lack of good roads and problems with river transit= bad transportation
    • b.      Toll stations on important rivers and customs barriers increased costs of goods
    • c.       Guild restrictions created impediments
    • d.      Continental entrepreneurs less enterprising than British counterparts and tended to adhere to traditional business attitudes, such as dislike of competition, a high regard for family security coupled with unwillingness to take risks in investment, and an excessive worship of thriftiness
    • Thus, industrialization on the Continent faced obstacles
  4. Borrowing Techniques and Practices
    •                                                               i.      Lack of technical knowledge=obstacle
    •                                                             ii.      Continental countries also had advantage= borrowing British ideas, even though Brits tried to stop it
    • 1.      Until 1825, British artisans were prohibited from leaving the country, until 1842, the export of important machinery and machine parts, especially for textile production, was forbidden
    • a.      Brits couldn’t control situation by legislation and by 1825, there were 2000 skilled Brit mechanics on Continent, and British equipment was being sold
  5. Continent achieved
    •                                                               i.      Gradually, the Continent achieved technological independence as local people learned skills British teachers offered
    • 1.      1840s: new generations of skilled mechanics from Belgium and France were spreading their knowledge east and south, similar to British
    • a.      Continental countries, especially France and German states, began to establish wide range of technical schools to train engineers and mechanics
  6. Role of Government
    •                                                               i.      Governments in most Continental countries played big role in industry
    • 1.      Furthering development of industrialization was logic
    • a.      Government provided costs of technical education, awarded grants, exempted foreign industrial equipment from import duties, and financed factories, and bore cost of building roads and canals, deepening and widening river channels, and constructing railroads
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      1850: network of iron rails spread across Europe, although only Germany and Belgium completed major parts of systems by that time
  7. Tariffs
    •                                                               i.      Governments on Continent also used tariffs to further industrialization
    • 1.      After 1815, cheap British goods flooded Continental markets
    • a.      French used high tariffs to protect their industries
  8. Friedrich List
    • 1.      Most systematic argument for tariff use: Freidrich List
    • a.      Emigrated to Americaà returned to Germany as US consulà National System of Political Economy
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      He advocated a rapid and large-scale program of industrialization as the surest path to develop a nation’s strength
  9. To assure path to industrialization
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      To assure path to industrialization, he felt that a nation must use protective tariffs
    • 1.      If countries followed Brit’s free trade, cheaper Brit goods would inundate national markets and destroy infant industries before they had a chance to grow
    • a.      Germany could not compete with Britain without protective tariffs
  10. Centers of Continental Industrialization
    •                                                               i.      The Industrial Revolution on the Continent occurred in three major areas between 1815 and 1850—belgium, France, and the German states
    • 1.      Cotton played important role like in Britain
    • a.      France was leader in manufacture of cotton goods but still lagged far behind Great Britain
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      1849: France used 64,000 tons of raw cotton, Belgium, 100,000, and Germany, 20,000, whereas Britain had 286,000 tons
  11. Continental cotton factories
    a.      Continental cotton factories were older, used less efficient machines, and had less productive labor
  12. Continental technology
    •                                                               i.      Continental technology in the cotton industry was a generation behind Great Britain
    • 1.      With cheap coal and scarce water, Belgium used steam engine as major source of power and invested in new machinesà (mid-1840s) most modern cotton-manufacturing system on the Continent
  13. cotton manufacturing on the continent vs. Britain:
    1.      Britain: cotton manufacturing mostly centered in Lancashire and Glasgow area of Scotland, cotton mills in France, Germany, and Belgium were dispersed through many regions
  14. cotton manufacturing on the continent vs. Britain
    • a.      Also, the mixture of old and new was noticeable
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Old techniques of cottage system, such as use of hand looms, held on much longer
    • 1.      In French district of Normandy, 83 mills still driven by hand or animal power
  15. Traditional methods
    •                                                               i.      As traditional methods persisted alongside new methods in cotton manufacturing, the new steam engine was used in mining and metallurgy on the Continent rather than in textile manufacturing
    • 1.      At first, almost all steam engines on Continent from Britain until 1820 with development of domestic machinery industry
  16. BDifference of Industrial Revolution
    •                                                               i.      Britain’s Industrial Revolution built on cotton industry
    •                                                             ii.      Continent: iron and coal
    • 1.      As in textiles, heavy industry on the Continent before 1850= mix of old and new
    • a.      New techniques, like coke-smelted iron and puddling furnaces, coincided with expansion of old type charcoal blast furnaces
  17. Before 1850:
    •                                                               i.      Before 1850, Germany behind Belgium and France in heavy industry, and most German iron manufacturing based on old techniques
    • 1.      1840s-coke-blast iron produced in Rhineland, which was buried in Ruhr valley
    • a.      This showed that even though Continent was behind, it would later surpass Britain
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