ch 2 applied psych cjs

  1. natural law
    reders to a legal theory that hold the following to be moreally irrefutable: some rules and principles derive from more than the experiences of mena and women, but rather nature itself creates them and humankind discovers them.
  2. positive law
    law derived out of the political process
  3. social contract
    mythical state of afiars wherein each person agrees to a pact, the basic stipulation of which is that all men are created equal.
  4. classical school
    • Beccaria & Bentham
    • free will--every person has ability to choose right from wrong
    • humans tend toward hedonism
  5. Beccaria's classical theory / 3 elements / punishment
    • certainty
    • celerity
    • severity
  6. certianty
    refers to the probability that offending persons will receive a sanction for their deed
  7. severity
    pain of any sanction must outweigh the pleasure received from engaging in illegal act
  8. celerity
    aka promptness
    refers to the elapsed time between the act and the sanction
  9. necoclassicalism
    • maintains classical theory's emphasis on free will
    • allows for mitigating or aggrevating circumstances
  10. perceptual deterrence hypothesis
  11. cost-benefit analysis
    individual measures cost/benefit of behavior
  12. general deterrence
    refelct the idea that persons watching, hearing about, or otherwise becoming aware of a sanctioning process will view the outcomes as too costly and not engage in the punished conduct.
  13. specific (or individal) deterrence
    persons who have been caught, convicted, and punished.
  14. absolute deterrence
    once individuals come to see the error of their ways or the potential losses they face, the will refrain from all crime.
  15. restrictive deterrence
    • offenders may refrain from an act that previously landed them in trouble or that threatens trouble
    • modify criminal behvior but not abandon it
  16. time discounting
    • and idea from economics
    • has implications for how deterrence operates
  17. deterrence research questions
    • 1. is it a theory or a hypothesis?
    • 2. whether theory or hypothesis, can deterrence stand on its own, or must it be tied to other theories?
    • 3. is the theory's conceptual base too narrow?
    • 4. does deterrence work to control only minor forms of conduct but not crimes that are more serious?
  18. deterrence/brutalization thesis
    capital punishment increases stranger homocides
  19. mandatory sentencing
    • punishments for certain crimes (usually violence and drugs)
    • convicted offenders may not be placedon probation and must serve a specific sentence prior to release on parole, if parole is an option.
  20. neuve classical school
    • two primary forms:
    • rational choice theory
    • routine activities theory
  21. choice structuring
    occurs when individuals asses their own skills and needs in light of a specific crime's characteristics
  22. involvement decision
    a multistage evaluation process that ends with the decision to get involved in crime
  23. event decision
    • based on information obtained about a criminal act
    • before commission but after involvment
  24. fig 2.2 rational choice theory
  25. predatory crime depends on...
    • 1. motivated offender
    • 2. sutable target
    • 3. lack of capable guardian
  26. predatory crime
    violent crimes against persons and crimes of theft in which the victim is present
  27. motivated offender
    someone who feels the need for cash, itmes with immediate liquidity, or other items of calue such as clothing or cars
  28. suitable target
    well-heeled pedestrian in the wrong part of town, a car on interstate, or house with valuable goods
  29. capable guardian
    no homeowner present, no police, or lone traveler
  30. 4 dimensions of target suitability
    • 1. exposure
    • 2. guardianship
    • 3. attractiveness
    • 4. proximity
  31. exposure
    visibility and physical accessiblity of the target
  32. guardianship
    the ability and presence of persons or objects to prevent crime from occurring
  33. attractiveness
    material or symbolic value of persons/property
  34. proximity
    the physical distance btwn potenial targets and populations of potenial offenders
  35. figure 2.3 routine activies theory
  36. hot spots
    places where lots of crime happen
  37. hot spot patrols
    police target hot spots through special patrolling
  38. diffusion of crime-control benegits hypothesis
    increasing enforcement in one area will drive down the crime rates of nearby areas as well
  39. spatial displacement hypothesis
    suggests that hot spot practices may reduce one area's crime rates, but only because the criminals move to nearby areas where crime control is less aggressive.
  40. table 2.1 deterrence theories of crime
Card Set
ch 2 applied psych cjs
ch 2