ch 1 applied psych cjs

  1. theory
    an attempt to make sense of a real-world occurence; explanation is highly organzied statement based om systematic observations
  2. free will
    people choose paths and behaviors
  3. determinism
    forces beyond people's control largely shape individual and social behavior
  4. ideology
    set of strongly held beliefs that are not subject to testing or critical review
  5. theology
    strong beliefs that orginiate with a god or other spiritual entity
  6. propositions
    generalized statements about relationships, usually between two or more things
  7. laws
    highly verified propositions; constistent and strong support when tested.
  8. hypotheses
    propositions who body of research is less compelling than laws.
  9. deductive research
    theory-testing studies; beginning; uses past theorizations
  10. inductive research
    theory-building studies; end point; lets date speak for itself.
  11. research design
    who what where when why how
  12. qualitative data
    nonnumerical examinations and interpreatations of observations intended to reveal the object of study's essence or basic nature
  13. quantitative data
    numerical examinations and minpulations of observations intended to express the object of study in terms of accurate numberical equivalents.
  14. conceptualization
    provides general and logical def for terms used in a theory
  15. operationalization
    provides specific steps that allow for the mearsurement of the theory's key terms
  16. empirical observations
  17. analysis
    process by which researchers look for patterns and ways of organizing their observations or data in systematic ways
  18. findings
    products of analysis
  19. empirical generalization
    an individual proposition about or statement of the relationship between facts revealed by the data; has potential to go beyond the present case.
  20. pure science
    creation of knowledge for its own sake
  21. applied science
    attempts to address a spcific societal need
  22. correlations
    ties two variable mearsure of events together
  23. causation
    anything that produces and effect
  24. spuriousness
    • quality accorded certain types of relationships; refers to an observed relationship between two measures
    • relationship between two variables due to the influence of a third variable
  25. tautology
    occurs when the cariable under study and its cause are indistinguishable from each other; circular reasoning; use of words to explain the same thing twice.
  26. ex post facto
    after the fact
  27. typology
    systematic method of classifying info according to clearly specified rules
  28. paradigm
    a school of thought within a particular discipline; determinism & free will
  29. 4 goals of a theory
    • description
    • explanation
    • prediction
    • and control
  30. theory/description goal
    • statements embodied in the theory mesh with what we know about crime and criminals
    • must have high levels of:
    • accuracy
    • reliability
    • validity
  31. goal theory/explantion
    • offers to answer the questions
    • "why is it"
    • usually get the deepr aspect of the prob
  32. goal theory as prediction
    • shifts the emphasis
    • prediction by nature is the fortelling or forecast of somthing
  33. goal theory/control
    • if theoristy who knows most about issue does not get involved, then people with less knowledge define policy and agenda
    • researchers view selves as value-free observers
  34. 3 criterion for causation to have occured
    • 1. cause must precde the effect in time
    • 2. researchers must demonstrate the presence of a correlation, usually through statitically research
    • 3. absence of spurious link between the alleged cause and effect
Card Set
ch 1 applied psych cjs
criminal justice psych