1. (cross cultural variation)(japaneese education) How is theirs different than ours? (2)
    • -early childhood doesnt focus on academics but more of a group involvement
    • *learn values of cooperation and sharing
  2. (preschool as a cognitive intervention) what year did Project head start began?
  3. (preschool as a cognitive intervention) IN prject head start how many years can they receive? (2)
    • 2 years of preschool
    • *they also receive other benefits like free meals and health care
  4. (preschool as a cognitive intervention)  Children who participated in project head start are less likely to...
    -repeat a grade or;

    -be placed in special education
  5. (preschool as a cognitive intervention) Did high scope have longer effects than project head start?
  6. (preschool as a cognitive intervention) How long was High scope Preschool project?
    full day for 2 year intervention
  7. (language development) Whats the pace of learning language?
    rapid pace
  8. (language development)(cultural variations) what do Eastern languages learn first?
  9. (language development)(cultural variations) what do western languages learn first?
  10. (language development) By age 4, how many percent of children use correct grammar?
    • 90%
    • *Grammar keeps developing
  11. (pragmatics) What is pragmatics?
    the social rules of language
  12. (pragmatics) How do kids begin understanding pragmatics?
    through gestures
  13. (pragmatics) By age two, kids...
    understand some of basic conversation
  14. (pragmatics) By age 4, kids become...
    • more sensitive to partners in conversation
    • *using different types of speeches
  15. (emotional regulation) What is emotional self regulation?
    ability to exercise control over ones emotions
  16. (emotional regulation) Emotional self-regulation AND Social relationships
    -Self regulation is important for social relationships because it restrains us from our immediate impulses
  17. (emotional regulation) Why does extreme emotional expression decline with age? (2)
    -development of frontal cortex promotes this process

    -children learn strategies to regulate their emotions
  18. (emotional regulation) What is effortful control?
    when children focus their attention on managing their emotions
  19. (emotional regulation) What is undercontrol? and What can it lead to? (2)
    -trait of having inadequate emotional self regulation

    • -can lead to externalizing problems
    • *aggression
    • *common in males
  20. (emotional regulation) What is overcontrol? and what can it lead to?
    -trait of having excessive emotional self regulation

    • -it can lead to internalizing problems
    • *anixety/depression
    • *common in females
  21. (moral development) Why do sociomoral emotions develop?
    due to awareness of expected behavior for the childs culture
  22. (moral development) Empathy moral development AND importance
    empathy is very important for moral development
  23. (moral development) What does empathy promote? (2)
    • -better awareness in perspective taking
    • *how others think and feel

    • - promotes prosocial behavior
    • *helping and generous
  24. (moral development) How does moral advancement advance further?
    when children become more aware of rules and expectations of their culture
  25. (moral development) What are custom complex?
    distinctive cultural pattern of behavior that reflect underlying cultrual beliefs
  26. (moral development) Moralty can be learned through...
    • custom complexes
    • *india women when on period, does not cook
  27. (moral development) What a variation of custom complexes found in american research?
  28. (moral development)(modeling) How do children learn how to behave?
    by watching which behaviors are rewarded and which are punished
  29. (gender development) at age 3-4, what happens to gender identity?
    • it intensifies
    • *they associate themselves with toys, colors, etc.
  30. (gender development) What do they learn at ages 6-7?
    • gender constancy
    • *maleness and femaleness are biological and cannot change
  31. (gender development)Role of fathers AND Gender roles
    • Fathers are more insistent about gender roles than mothers are
    • *monitor girls not acting like guys and boys not acting like girsl
  32. (gender development) Role of Peers AND gender roles (3)
    • Peers reinforce gender appropriate behaviors
    • *stricter for boys
    • **reject the people that dont abide
  33. (gender development) What does gender socialization lead to?
    gender schemas
  34. (gender development) What is gender schemas?
    • behaviors and activities categorized as male or female
    • *we tend to ignore the misfits
    • *females being doctors story
  35. (gender development) What is self-socialization?
    is maintaining consistency between behavior and schemas
  36. (parenting) Authoritative parents
    • -high in demandingness and high in responsiveness
    • *they can be warm and loving

    ***ex) parents say No! becasue...
  37. (parenting) Authoritarian
    • -high in demandingness and low in responsiveness
    • *shows little emotional attachment and may be hostile

    ex) parents say NO! without explanation
  38. (parenting) Permisive
    • low in demandingness and high in responsiveness
    • *give as much liberty as possible
  39. (parenting) Disengaged
    • low in both demandingess and responsiveness
    • *minimize time parenting
  40. outcomes in aprenting style) Authoritative (3)
    independent, creative, self-assured
  41. outcomes in aprenting style) PERMISSIVE
    irresponsible, confroming, immature
  42. outcomes in aprenting style) Authoritarian
    dependent, passive, conforming
  43. outcomes in aprenting style) Disengaged
    impulsive, behaviro problems, early sex and drugs
  44. (parenting) Asian cultures- Filial piety
    children are expected to respect, obey, and reveree thier parents thoughtout life
  45. (parenting) Latino culture - Familismo
    emphasizes the love, closeness, and mutual obligations among family members
  46. (discipline and punishment) Western culture may empahsize...
    authoritative approach including time out
  47. (discipline and punishment) Japanese emphasizes..
    • withdrawal of love and shame
    • *makes child not want to disobey again
  48. (physical punishment and its consequences) Is corporal punishment (physical punishment) common?
    it is in most parts of the world
  49. (discipline and punishment) Has there been studies that show effects on physical punishment?
    • yes, they showed detrimental effects on child.
    • *also depends on the culture
    • **balcks and white families
  50. (child abuse and neglect) Physical abuse
    physical harm
  51. (child abuse and neglect) EMotional abuse
    ridicule and humiliation
  52. (child abuse and neglect) Sexual abuse
    sexual contact
  53. (child abuse and neglect) Neglect abuse
    do not meet basic needs of child
  54. (child abuse and neglect) What are 2 risk factors for children being abused?
    -difficult temperament

    -unusually aggresive
  55. (child abuse and neglect)4 Parental risk factors for commiting abuse


    -single motherhood

    -history of abuse
Card Set
chapter 6 (31-52)