Human Development Mid-Term

  1. People are not the source of their own actions. They are passive & reactive (don't do anything until something from outside causes them to react). If a part is broken it can be fixed or replaced.
    Mechanistic worldview (ex: children like sponges or blank slates, ppl like clay)
  2. Development occurs in stages, each stage different from previous. Change comes from within rather than environment
    Organismic world view (ex: children like plants, newborns like seeds)
  3. The environ and ind are both important contributors to development. Change is an interaction of the two. Development is ongoing, dynamic process
    Contextual world view
  4. 4 ways that experience or context can influence developmental outcomes
    hospital bed (ppl are acted on by environ); amusement part (ind select certain features of environ to exp); swim meet (environ acts like supportive context for behaviors); tennis match (interaction bt influences in environ and ind)
  5. Most proximal ecological layer; consists of direction interactions b/t indiv and other ppl or structures; most development research focuses on this
  6. System of relationships among the ind's microsystem; ex: interaction b/t child's parents and teacher
  7. defines larger social system in which ind don't function directly; structures in this layer impact ind's dev by interacting with some structure in his microsystem (ex: parent's work schedule)
  8. Culture or subcultures in which individual develops; most distal layer of influence
  9. transitions, entries, exits, milestones, and turning points (i.e. normative age-graded, normative historical, non-normative ind differences)
    chronosystem or temporal influences
  10. indiscriminate responsiveness to humans; prefer face to other visual stimuli
    pre-attachment (8-12 weeks)
  11. social responses become much more selective; onset of true social smile (gradually respect to familiar people); usually prefer 2-3 ppl, and one in particular
    attachment-in-the-making (3-7 months)
  12. intense attachment and active proximity seeking; fear of strangers; social referencing (explore environment using mother as secure base); adjust movements to regain prox to mom; separation anxiety
    clear-cut attachment (6mon-2,3yrs)
  13. communicates with words, less distress at separation with secure attachment
    goal-corrected partnership
  14. actively explore environment when mother is present; if distressed during separation, the mom's return reduces distress and baby returns to exploration
    secure attachment
  15. avoid contact with mothers after separation or ignore their efforts to interact; show less distress at being alone than other babies
    anxious-avoidant attachment
  16. very cautious in presence of strangers; when caregiver returns, infant appears to want to be close but is angry abt departure and hard to soothe
    anxious-resistant attachment
  17. baby has no consistent strategy; contradictory, unpredictable; fear, confusion
    disorganized attachment
  18. positive view of self and others, comfy with closeness and intimacy
    secure attachment (adult)
  19. negative views of self and others; have a fear of, and desire for, closeness
    fearful-avoident attachment (adult)
  20. negative view of self and positive view of others; high level of closeness and fear of abandonment
    preoccupied/enmeshed attachment (adult)
  21. positive view of self and negative view of others, uncomfy with closeness, overly self-reliant
    dismissing-avoidant attachment (adult)
  22. contributors to reproductive success
    healthy growth and dev prior to reproductive period; mating success and conception of offspring; ability to parent offspring so they can reach reproductive stage and bear children of their own
  23. defenses typical in early childhood; coping with reality by rearranging external reality in your mind so you don't have to deal with it
    psychotic defenses (ex: psychotic denial, distortion, delusional projection)
  24. defenses most common during adolescence
    immature defenses (ex: fantasy, dissociation, passive aggression, projection)
  25. refusing to acknowledge a situation exists
    psychotic denial
  26. "neurotic" denial of internal reality (not external); includes distraction (drinking, drugs, sex)
  27. unacceptable wishes or feelings are attributed to someone else. Ex: reality: "I hate my teacher" rephrased as "my teacher hates me"
  28. defenses common in everyone; can have short-term advantages but may cause long-term problems
    neurotic defenses (ex: repression, acting out, intellectualization, reaction formation, regression, displacement, rationalization)
  29. expressing behavior that is opposite what you feel
    reaction formation
  30. optimizes one's ability to have normal relationships and take pleasure in life
    mature defenses (ex: sublimation, altruism, anticipation, humor, suppression)
  31. provide the motivational force to do good and to avoid doing bad; evoked by self-reflection and self-evaluation
    moral emotions (ex: shame, guilt, embarrassment, pride)
  32. promotes defensiveness and interpersonal separation and distance, disrupts ability to form empathic connections, related to expressions of anger and tendency to blame other factors than self
    hidden costs of shame
  33. leads to reparative actions such as confessing and apologizing, promotes constructive pursuits and other-oriented empathy, less likely to engage in indirect and displaced aggressions
    adaptive nature of guilt
  34. characterized by formation of increasingly complex sensory and motor schemes that person to organize & exercise some control over environ; object permanence accomplished
    sensorimotor state (birth-18mon)
  35. able to rep world using symbols and language, includes imagination, called the period of play
    preoperational stage (tod-5 or 6 yr)
  36. gaps in preoperational thought
    "seeing is believing," egocentrism, animism, centration
  37. only able to focus on one feature of an object at a time, leads to lack of conservation
  38. inability to separate self from other and take another's perspective
  39. ability to impute mental states to the self and others; false belief task is litmus test for crediting a child with this
    theory of mind (preoperational stage)
  40. more logical prblm solving; more successful solving problems tied to physical reality; beginning to develop decentration, conservation, & more advanced classification skills
    concrete operational stage (7-11 yrs)
  41. abstract thought, metacognition, hypothetical thinking, relativist thinking, adolescent egocentrism (imaginary audience, personal fable)
    formal operational stage
Card Set
Human Development Mid-Term
hum dev mid-term notes