1. Name the 4 levels of officers under NFPA 1021I
    • Level 1: First-line supervisor (supervisor)
    • Level 2: Midlevel supervisor (supervisory/managerial)
    • Level 3: First-line manager (managerial/administrative)
    • Level 4: Department manager or chief of department (administrative)
  2. Fire Officer Levels 1 & 2 provide first line supervision for what 6 functions?
    • Fire suppression
    • Search and rescue
    • EMS
    • Fire prevnetion
    • Public fire and life-safety education
    • Fire cause determination and arson investigation
  3. What 6 staff functions do officers supervise?
    • Operations
    • Planning
    • Training
    • Logistics
    • Administration
    • Finance
  4. "Provde services directly to external customers based on the organization's mission statement and goals"
    Line functions
  5. "Provide services to the line units (external customers) based on the objectives established to attain the organization's goals"
    Staff/support functions
  6. What's the difference between knowledge and skills and abilities
    Knowledge and skills can be learned
  7. NFPA 1021 divides duties of officers into what 6 catagories?
    • Numan resource management
    • Community and government relations
    • Administration
    • Inspection and investigation
    • Emergency service delivery
    • Health and safety
  8. What is supervising?
    Act of directing, overseeing, or controlling the activites and behavior of employees who are assigned to a particular supervisor.
  9. What is managing?
    Act of controling, monitoring, or directing a project, program, situation, or organization through the use of autority, discipline, or persuasion.
  10. What is leading?
    Act of controlling, directing, conducting, guiding, and administering through the use of personal behavioral traits or personality characteristics that motivate employees to the successful compeltion of an organization's goals.
  11. Basic leadership style
    Includes autocratic, democratic, and laissez-faire categories
  12. Two-dimensional leadership styles
    Includes job centered and employee centered models
  13. Contingency leadership theory
    Believes that no single best style exists
  14. Contemporary leadership styles
    Includes charismatic, transformational, transactional, and symbolic theories
  15. Theory X
    Bases theory on the average worker disliking work
  16. Theory Y
    Bases theory on the average worker believing work is natural
  17. Theory Z
    Bases theory on involved workers performing without supervision
  18. Directive leadership style
    Leader gives specific guidance to subordinates
  19. Supportive leadership style
    Leader shows concern for subordinates
  20. Participative leadership style
    Leader asks for suggestions from subordinates
  21. Achievement-oriented leadership style
    Leader establishes high goals and expects high performance from subordinates
  22. Principle centered leadership
    Based on use of basic values or principles to lead an organization
  23. Level 1 leader
    Highly capable individual who makes productive contributions through talent, knowledge, skills, and good work habits
  24. Level 2 leader
    Contributing team member who contributes individiual capabilities to the achievement of group objectives and works effectively with others in a group setting
  25. Level 3 leader
    Competent manager who organizes people and resources toward the effective and efficient pursuit of predetermined objectives
  26. Level 4 leader
    Effective leader who catalyzes commitemtn to and vigorous pursuit of a clear and compelling vision, stimulating highter performance standards
  27. Level 5 leader
    Executive who builds enduring greatness through a paradoxical blend of personal humility and professional willpower
  28. Basic leadership model
    Based on theory that divides leaders into three catagories: autocratic, democratic, and laissez-faire.
  29. Leadership-continuum theory
    Determines which leadership (ranging from autocratic to democratic) should be used
  30. What 3 theories make up the situational leadership theories?
    • Leadership-continuum theory
    • Path-goal theory
    • Results-based theory
  31. What are the 4 leadership styles under the path-goal theory?
    • Directive
    • Supportive
    • Participative
    • Achievement-oriented
  32. Results-based leadership theory
    States that effective leadership is the result of personal attributes multiplied by the results
  33. Situational leadership model
    Based on two-dimensional and situational leadership theories it depends on matching the leader's style to the maturity of the members
  34. What 2 things determine maturity (or follower readiness)?
    • Ability (knowledge, skills, and experience)
    • Willingness (commitment and motivation)
  35. Situation leadership that uses autocratic approach
  36. Situation leadership that uses autocratic approach that involves convincing members that the task is appropriate and justified
  37. Situation leadership that relies on input from members in determining how the task should be accomplished
  38. Situation leadership that uses limits set by lead and allows members to determine how the taks will be accomplished
  39. Social-change leadership model
    Value-based model of leadership that places service at the core for social change
  40. Alpha leadership model involves what 4 elements
    • Leader
    • Followers
    • System
    • Goal
  41. What is Pareto's Principle?
    Commit 80% effort to 20% of the most important tasks
  42. What is a 360-Degree Feedback Evaluation
    Anonymous open ended questioning of people who are associated with the person being evaluated.
  43. Name 4 ways to improve leadership skills
    • Courses
    • Siminars/Workshops
    • Literature readings
    • Counselors/Mentors
  44. What are the 5 most basic leadership traits
    • Sees opportunities
    • Identifies challenges
    • Communicates
    • Plans for success
    • Builds trust
  45. What are (my words) the 6 steps to leading
    • Challenge the system
    • Inspire a shared vision
    • Enable others to act
    • Model the way
    • Encourage the heart (share glory, keep pain)
    • Establish priorities
  46. What are the 5 types of power?
    • Reward
    • Coercive
    • Identification
    • Expert
    • Legitimate
  47. What is comman presence
    The ability to instill in others the valid belief that everything will be okay simply by their presence
  48. What are the 6 attributes necessaryto have command presence?
    • Self-confidence
    • Trustworthiness
    • Consistency
    • Responsibility
    • Acceptance
    • Expertise
  49. What are the 8 steps to create command presence?
    • Know the situation
    • Know what resources are available to apply to the situation
    • Know the strategy and tactics required to resolve the situation
    • Listen to all points of view
    • Make the decision
    • Take responsibility for the decision
    • Implement the decision
    • Evaluate the decision
  50. Name 8 attributes of a successful leader
    • Speech
    • Courtesy
    • Friendliness
    • Loyalty
    • Dependability
    • Tactfulness
    • Enthusiasm
    • Understanding
  51. What are the 6 functions of management?
    • Planning
    • Organizing
    • Controlling
    • Researching
    • Analyzing
    • Directing
    • Evaluating
  52. Define supervision
    Act of directing, overseeing, or controlling the activities and behavior of employees who are assigned to a particular supervisor
  53. Define management
    Act of controlling, monitoring, or directing a project, program, situation, or organization through the use of authority, discipline, or persuasion
  54. Define leading
    Act of controlling, directing, conducting, guiding, and administering through the use of personal behavioral traits or personality characteristics that motivate employees to the successful completion of an organization's goals
  55. Define following
    Act of being a team player while working toward a common goal
  56. What are the 3 levels of priorities?
    • Mental preparation for emergency response
    • Direct preparation for emergency response
    • Application of efficient organizational skills
  57. What 3 ways can supervisors involve employees in the process of establishing goals and objectives?
    • Require the employee accomplish a specific task
    • Delegate tasks
    • Use democratic leadership principles
  58. Define workgroups
    Groupings of people with the common purpose of completing specific objectives within the organization
  59. Define team building
    Process of overcoming inherent individual differences within the unit and empowering members to make decisions for the benefit of the group
  60. What are the 5 stages of team development?
    • Forming (honeymoon)
    • Storming (bickering)
    • Norming (filling rolls)
    • Performing (shared movement)
    • Adjourning (debriefing)
  61. What 3 tools can create job interest
    • Coaching
    • Counseling
    • Mentoring
  62. Define coaching
    Informal process of giving mtivational direction, positive reinforcement, and constructive feedback to employees in order to maintain and improve their performance and ensure successful performances. Should be positive, immediate, direct, and frequent
  63. Define counseling
    Formal process that involves activities that assist participants in identifying and resolving personal, behavioral, or career problems that are adversely affecting performance. Should be done in private with a record kept
  64. Define mentoring
    Process used to prepare capable individuals for advancement within the organization through the direction of a positive role model
  65. Name the 4 steps to counseling
    • Describe the current performance
    • Describe the desired performance
    • Gain commitment for change
    • Follow up the commitment
  66. What are the 4 steps to completing a task
    • Planning
    • Organizing
    • Controlling
    • Evaluating
  67. Define logic
    Ability to reason and present a strong argument in favor of or against a position
  68. Define ethics
    Analysis of the principles of human conduct in order to be able to determine between right a wrong
  69. Inductive Reasoning
    A process that arrives at a general conclusion based on a foundation of specific examples or data
  70. Deductive Reasoning
    The process of reaching a specific conclusion based on a general statement or principle
  71. Casual Reasoning
    Process based on the relationsip between two or more events in such a way that it is obvious one caused the other to occur
  72. Analogical Reasoning
    Based on a comparison between two similar cases
  73. Name the 3-step ethics check
    • Is it legal?
    • Is it fair to all concerned?
    • How will it make me feel about myself?
  74. What are the 4 reasons for lying?
    • Basic needs
    • Affiliation
    • Self-esteem
    • Self-Gratification
  75. What are the 7 steps to dealing with an ethical dilemma?
    • 1. Recognize and define the situation
    • 2. Obtain all the facts surrounding the situation
    • 3. List all possible options necessary to respond to the situation
    • 4. Compare each option to established criteria
    • 5. Select the best option that meets the criteria
    • 6. Double check the decision
    • 7. Take action and implement the decision
  76. What are the 4 questions in decision making?
    • 1.Is the decision within the authority of the company officer?
    • 2. Is there sufficient information available about the situation or problem to make an informed decision?
    • 3. How will the decision affect the unito ro organization?
    • 4. Is the problem worth the effort?
  77. What conditions affect decisions?
    • Certainty
    • Risk
    • Uncertainty
  78. Generic vs exceptional decisions
    Generic are routine and made based on norms, rules, procedures, etc. Exceptional are not routine.
  79. Rational decision making model
    Leader gathers information and makes the decision based on the best possible alternatives to the situation. Unsually applied to exceptional (or nonprogrammed) decisions.
  80. Bounded rationality decision making model
    Leader selects the decision that will satisfy the minimal requirmenets of the situation. Usually applied to generic (programmed) decisions.
  81. What are the 6 steps in decision process?
    • 1. Classify the problem (generic or exceptional)
    • 2. Define the problem
    • 3. List alternative options
    • 4. Determine the best response (should be correct technically, morally, ethically, legally, politically, and financially)
    • 5. Convert the decision into an action
    • 6. Test the action against the desired outcome
  82. Barriers to decision making may be _____ or _____
    Psychological (internal) or organizational (external)
  83. What is the abilene paradox?
    When members of a group go along with a decision evenwhen they believe it to be a bad one rather than dissent against the group.  Members do not want to appear out of step or are afraid that their opinion is flawed.
  84. Name the 4 step ethics test
    • 1. Is it the truth?
    • 2. Is it fair to all concerned?
    • 3. Will it build goodwill and better relationships?
    • 4. Will it be beneficial to all concerned?
  85. What is the 4 step fire service ethics test?
    • Is the decision based on well-analyzed facts?
    • Is the decision based on ethical values held by the organization and the community?
    • Will the decision build strong internal and external relationships and generate the appropriate image of the organization?
    • Will the decision benefit everyone affected by it?
  86. Define common law/case law
    Body of law that is based on tradition, custom, usage, and decisions of the judicial courts within a particular country, society, or culture.
  87. Substantive law
    Deals with actual issues by establishing principles, defining duties and obligations, and creating and defining the limitations of rights within a society
  88. Procedural law
    Defines judiciary rules or mechanisms used to enforce substantive laws
  89. Common law
    Origionally traditional or customary but much of it has become statutory
  90. Statutory law
    Pertains to laws enacted by legislative body
  91. Administrative law
    Laws created by government agencies used to enforce and implement statutory law
  92. Criminal law
    Protects society from wrongful actions (also penal law)
  93. Difference between criminal and civil law
    Criminal law deals with the rights and responsibilities of individuals toward society, and civil law deals primarily with private rights and responsibilities
  94. What is a liability
    A legal obligation or responsibility
  95. Tort
    Civil wrong or breach of duty to another person as defined by law
  96. Proximate cause
    Effective or primary cause of loss or damage or an unbroken chain of events between the occurence and resulting damage
  97. Negligence
    Failure to exercise the same care that a reasonable, prudent, and careful person would under the same or similar circumstances
  98. Malfeasance
    Commission of an unlawful act committed by a public official
  99. Misfeasance
    Improper performance of a legal or lawful act
  100. Nonfeasance
    Failure to act when under an obligation to do so
  101. Standard of care
    Level of care a responsible person would use inder similar circumstances
  102. Soveregn immunity
    Doctrine that the federal, state, or local government is immune to lawsuit unless it gives its consent
  103. Vicarious liability
    Situation that occurs when one person is held responsible for the actions or inactions of another individual
  104. Fireman's Rule
    Firefighter knows occupational risks and is trained.  They are thus note entitled to redress for injuries from property owners.  The exception is if there was a crime, like arson or gross negligence (like not mentioning explosives).
  105. Are firefighters immune from lawsiuts?
    No, if they act with negligence, they are liable.
  106. What are the 4 elements of tort?
    • 1. Legal duty to act
    • 2. Breach of duty (failed to perform or properly perform)
    • 3. Proximate cause
    • 4. Damages suffered
  107. Where in the CFR (code of federal regulations) are OSHA and EPA requirements?
    Titles 29 and 30 respectively
  108. Disparate/Differntial treatment
    Treating someone different based on race, geneder, religion, etc
  109. Adverse impact
    Unintended disadvante to minorities in testing
  110. What are the 2 types and definitions of sexual harassment?
    • Quid pro quo- Overt, unwanted, or unwelcome sexual behavior or advances toward a worker sby someone who has the power to reward or punish the worker.
    • Histile work environment- Speech or conduct is severe or pervasive.
  111. Define industry standard
    Procedures and criteria recognized as acceptable practices by peer professional, credentialing, or accrediting organizations
  112. What is ANSI
    American National Standards Institute is a nonprofit that administers and coordinates the voluntary standardization and conformity assessment system
  113. What is ASTM International?
    A consensus based standards writing and testing organization
  114. What is the ICC?
    International Code Council- Merger of building and fire-code organizations that provide consistent and accceptable codes
  115. What are the 3 communication categories?
    Interpersonal (informal), oral (formal), written
  116. What are the 6 basic elements of interpersonal communication?
    • Sender
    • Message
    • Medium or channel
    • Receiver
    • Interference
    • Feedback to the sender
  117. What are the 5 purposes of interpersonal communication?
    • Learning
    • Relating
    • Influencing
    • Playing
    • Helping
  118. Words as symbols are (3)
    • Arbitrary
    • Ambiguous
    • Abstract
  119. Nonverbal elements are __% of a message, vocal tone and inflection is __%, and words are __%
    • 55
    • 38
    • 7
  120. Nonverbal clues consist of (3):
    • Kinesics (eye contact, posture, poise, etc)
    • Paralanguage or vocalics
    • Self-presentation
  121. Oral communication is...
    the process to presenting formal oral presentations or speeches to groups
  122. What are the 7 basic elements of oral communication?
    • Sender
    • Receiver
    • Message
    • Medium or channel
    • Feedback
    • Context
    • Interference (or noise)
  123. Eight characteristics of effective speakers
    • Audience-centered
    • Good development of ideas
    • Good organization of ideas
    • Best choice of words
    • Good delivery skills
    • Good research skills
    • Appropriate use of humor
    • Critical thinking skills
  124. What are the three types of speeches?
    • Persuasive
    • Informative
    • Entertainment
  125. What re the five steps under Monroe's Motivated Sequence Pattern?
    • Attention (story, stat, etc)
    • Need (describe the problem)
    • Satisfaction (present and support solution)
    • Visualization (examples)
    • Action (appeal for change)
  126. What are the principles of informational speeches?
    • Adapt the topic to the audience
    • Motivate the audience to listen to the speech
    • Use redundancy
    • Use simple-is-better concept
    • Organize the topic in a logical manner
    • Use clear transitions to move the listener through the topic
    • Use both verbal and nonverbal reinforcement of ideas
    • Use an even flow to deliver the information
    • Build on the familiar
    • Use visual aids
  127. What are the six steps to a report presentation?
    • Make an immediate statement of purpose
    • Explain how the information that the report is based upon was gathered
    • Present possible solutions to the situation
    • Tell the specific benefits for and effects on the audience
    • Anticipate any objections or questions that might arise
    • Provide a written copy of the report to the audience
  128. What are the 9 steps of speech preparation?
    • Select the topic
    • Determine the purpose
    • Generate the main ideas
    • Develop the central idea
    • Gather supporting evidence
    • Organize the speech
    • Rehearse the speech
    • Deliver the speech
    • Evaluate the speech
  129. What are the three main parts of a speech?
    • Introduction
    • Body
    • Conclusion
  130. What are the five basic formats for a speech?
    • Chronological
    • Topical
    • Spatial
    • Causal
    • Problem/solution
  131. What are the five ways material can be organized in a speech?
    • Primacy (important at begining)
    • Recency (important at end)
    • Complexity (simple to complex)
    • Specificity (general to specific)
    • Soft-to-hard evidence (opinions to facts/stats)
  132. What are the four types of speech delivery?
    • Extemporaneous delivery (relying on notes)
    • Memorizing the text
    • Impromptu delivery
    • Reading the text
  133. What three things must be considered for written communication?
    • Audience (who)
    • Scope (topic)
    • Purpose (why)
  134. What three reasons should an organization have an email policy?
    • Professionalism
    • Efficiency
    • Liability protection
  135. What are five formats for narrative reports?
    • Justification
    • Recommendation
    • Progress
    • Progress and justification
    • Description (ie. explaining something new)
  136. What is an executive summary?
    A brief review of the key points in a report, a technical paper, bid specifications, or an analysis that provides an audience such as senior managers an opportunity to understand the main points of the document without having to read the entire document.  They are usually attached to the front of a report.
  137. What is a boilerplate?
    Also referred to as legal requirments in a bid specification, it defines the legal obligations and requirements that are necessary to meet specifications.
  138. RFP's contain (10):
    • Quantity
    • Dates
    • Design
    • Warranty
    • Accessories
    • Training
    • Startup parts
    • Acceptance testing
    • Technical support
    • Nonperformance clause
  139. Bid requirements may include:
    • Attendance at prebid meetings
    • Warranties
    • Liability or performance bonds
    • Specified delivery times
    • Payment schedules
    • Financial statements
  140. Who are the customers?
    • Internal employees
    • External beneficiaries
    • Stakeholders
  141. What's wrong with passively hearing about needs/wants/desires?
    It is reactive, crisis-oriented, can be biased, requires immediate change.
  142. What is a policy?
    A guide to decision-making within an organization.
  143. Policies often come about by...
  144. Policies must be applied...
    fairly, consistently, and with discretion.
  145. What is a policy analysis?
    Determines whether current policies are effective and enforceable
  146. Past practices are also refered to as...
    unwritten policies or organizational norms
  147. What is a procedure?
    A detailed plan of action.
  148. When a policy or procedure has to be revised, replaced, or abandoned, the NFA suggests (5 things):
    • Define the problem (weakness/deficiency)
    • Collect information (NFA, other agencies, etc)
    • Generate alternative options (at least 2)
    • Evaluate alternative options (compare)
    • Select one option (use other as contingency)
  149. An order is...
    based upon the authority delegated to the fire officer to implement organizational policies and procedures.
  150. A directive is...
    not based on a policy or procedure, it is more in the nature of a request. 
  151. An order is mandatory because...
    it is based on policies/procedures
  152. A directive is not mandatory...
    except during emergency situations
  153. A budget is...
    a planned quantitative allocation of resources for specif activities
  154. What four functions do most budgets perform?
    • Anticipate future expenditures based on the goals and objectives of the jurisdiction or organization
    • Review the effectiveness of past budget performance
    • Establish and reinforce governmental policy
    • Assign responsibility for the accomplishment of goals and objectives
  155. Define budget system
    Model or formal to which a budget process conforms
  156. Define budget type
    Description of how costs or revenues are divided between capital and operational purchases
  157. Line-item budgeting
    consists of lists of revenue sources and proposed expenditures for the budget cycle
  158. Zero-based budgeting
    requires all expenditures to be justified at the beginning of each budget cycle
  159. Matrix budgeting
    involves a variety of independent units assigned to a limited duration project
  160. Program budgeting
    uses seperate categories of programs or activities
  161. Performance budgeting
    uses categories of function or activity based on projected performance
  162. Planning programming budgeting system
    links planning and budgeting through program development
  163. What are the two types of public budgets?
    Capital budgets and operating budgets
  164. Name 5 tax revenues
    • Property tax
    • Sales tax
    • Personal income tax
    • Special purpose tax levy
    • Fees
  165. What is a trust fund?
    An account whose assets are managed by a trustee or a board for the benefit of another party or parties.
  166. Trust funds are typically from/for...
    Donations and gifts used for one-time purchases
  167. Perpetual trusts...
    are funds from whichh only interest from capital may be expended
  168. Long-term trusts...
    are funds from which both income and capital may be expended
  169. Short-term trusts...
    are funds that are spent in the current year for some expressed purpose
  170. An employee pension fund is a...
    trust fund
  171. An enterprise fund is...
    established to finance and account for the acquisition, operation, and maintenance of government facilities and services that are entirely or predominantly self-supporting by user fees such as water and swere service fees.
  172. An auxiliary enterprise is...
    an entity that exists to furnish services to the population of a service are and charges a fee related to the cost of the service.
  173. Restricted funds
    are from a specific source and used for only specific things
  174. A sinking fund is...
    an account that receives a specified amount of revenue that will be used in the future to pay off a jurisdiction's indebtedness
  175. A bond is...
    a promise to repay the principal along with interest on a specified date, that is, when the bond reaches maturity.
  176. Block grants...
    are made available for defined purposes but within minimum conditions
  177. A foundation is...
    organized as private, corporate, community, or operating and usually has a board of directors who will give to specific causes in a specific geographic area
  178. What are the six steps to the budgeting process?
    • Planning
    • Preparing
    • Implementing
    • Monitoring
    • Evaluating
    • Revisiting
  179. What are the two types of spending?
    • Fixed-cost spending
    • Discretionary spending
  180. What are the three steps to budget approval?
    • Justification
    • Internal review
    • External review
  181. Why may a budget have to be revised during the budget cycle (6)?
    • Decrease in revenue
    • Increase in operating costs
    • Underestimation of actual costs
    • Increase in service requirements
    • Change in labor/management agreement
    • Unforseen or catastrophic occurrence
  182. What is the leading cause of FF deaths?
    Cardiac arrest
  183. What is the leading cause of FF injuries?
    Overexertion or stress that results in heart attacks and strokes
  184. What is an HSO
    Health and Safety Officer
  185. What are the three workplaces?
    • Emergency scenes
    • En route to and from scenes
    • Facilities
  186. To reduce emergency scene casualities what two directions should be approached by officer?
    • 1. Education about nutrition, fitness, etc
    • 2. On scene assessment of physical condition of crew
  187. Who is in charge of annual facility inspections?
    the HSO
  188. Accidents are sometimes referred to as...
  189. Accident investigations should be ____, ____, and directoward ____-finding, not ____-finding.
    • Objective
    • Impartial
    • Fact
    • Fault
  190. What three factors cause someone to be accident prone?
    • Improper attitude
    • Lack of knowledge or skill
    • Physically unsuited
  191. Who requires an investigation for any LODD?
    National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)
  192. What is the smallest unit of a fire organization?
    A company
  193. What is the purpose of organizaing fire departments?
    To provide the highest level of service at the lowest cost
  194. What is a scalar structure?
    An uniterupted series of steps or a chain of autority. (pyramid, paramilitary)
  195. T/F: Within scalar structures, certain decision-making autority is delegated to lower levels, and communication is enhanced
  196. What 3 reasons is the scalar structure well suited for emergency situations?
    • Span of control is maintained
    • Information is centralized fro decision-making
    • Functional chain of command is maintained
  197. Line personnel...
    Deliver services to external customers
  198. Staff personnel...
    Provide support to the line personnel or internal customers
  199. Functional supervision
    Reporting to someone of equal rank not because of rank but because it is the staff person's area of responsibility (pub ed, inspections, etc).  Also applies when a line person is tasked with a staff duty.
  200. Authority refers to...
    the legal ability of an individual to make and emplement decisions for which the individual is held accountable
  201. Centralized authority
    Decisions are made by one person at the top of the structure (works for a company size, not in a whole department)
  202. Decentralized authority
    Decisions are allowed to be made at a lower level (basically deledgation of authority) with the effects of the decisions reported through the structure
  203. For decentralized authority to work all members must understand the...
    direction, valuse, and goals of the organization
  204. Unity of command is...
    A management principle that states that each subordinate must have only one supervisor
  205. Violation of unity of command leads to...
    confusion and frustration by both subordinates and supervisors
  206. Chain of command is...
    the pathway of responsibility from the top of the organization to the bottom and vice versa
  207. What is it called when a subordinate sidesteps their supervisor?
    An end run
  208. What is it called when a subordinate is allowed to go to another supervisor because they are working on a task assigned through that officer?
    Functional supervision
  209. Span of control is...
    the number of subordinates that one individual can effectively supervise
  210. What are the typical spans of control?
    3-7 with 5 being optimum
  211. Division-of-labor is...
    dividing large jobs into smaller tasks that are then assigned to specific individuals
  212. A ____ is under a Department
  213. What is outside aid
    Similar to mutual aid except payment rather than reciprocal aid is made
  214. What are the four steps to instruction?
    • Preparation
    • Presentation
    • Application
    • Evaluation
  215. The lesson plan is essentially a...
    road map
  216. Name four methods of company-level training
    • Presentations
    • Discussions
    • Demonstrations
    • Practical training evolutions
  217. A discussion format is less ____ but not less ____
    • Formal
    • Structured
  218. The discussion format that company officers will most likely use is the...
    guided discussion where the company officer acts as the facilitator
  219. Demonstrations work best to teach...
    manipulative skills, physical principles, and mechanical functions
  220. Company drills are also referred to as...
    practical training evolutions
  221. What two primary requirements do company drills provide?
    • Hands-on training required by OSHA
    • Ability to apply knowledge and skills learned in the classroom
  222. Evoluntions promote (4)
    • Enthusiasm
    • Morale
    • Confidence
    • Team spirit
  223. Simple evolutions involve...
    small numbers of students performing a single task that requires only a few skills
  224. Any evolution requiring multiple teams demands the use of
  225. What two reasons must NIMS ICS be used in complex ecolutions?
    • Helps ensure safety and accountability
    • Acquaints participants with the operation of the system
  226. What four elements are involved in evolution control?
    • Supervision
    • Monitoring
    • Teaching
    • Managing
  227. What are the five plan types?
    • Standing
    • Single-use
    • Strategic
    • Operational/administrative
    • Contingency
  228. What are standing plans?
    Policies, procedures, and rules
  229. What are single-use plans?
    plans to accomplish a specific objective
  230. What are operational/administrative plans?
    Focus on how objectives will be accomplished as opposed to strategic plans which focus on what the objective is
  231. What are the five steps to planning?
    • Identify (problem)
    • Select (appropriate response)
    • Design (steps to meet goal)
    • Implement (perform)
    • Evaluate
  232. What are the two types of planning for emergencies?
    Preincident and incident scene
  233. Behavior management involves both...
    conflict management and discipline activities
  234. Passive behavior
    Hide emotions so others don't know how they feel, goal is to appease others and aviod conflict
  235. Aggressive behavior
    Express emotions openly by threatening others, goal is to dominate the situation
  236. Assertive behavior
    express emotions honestly and defend rights, goals are communication and mutual respect
  237. What are the five types of conflict management?
    • Avioding conflict
    • Accomodating conflict
    • Forcing conflict
    • Negotiating conflict
    • Collaborating conflict
  238. How is collaboraing conflict different from negotiating conflict
    Collaborating conflict focuses on what's best for the community, negotiating conflict focuses on the individuals
  239. What are the 6 steps to conflict resolution?
    • Classify/identify the problem
    • Define/diagnose the problem
    • List alternative options
    • Determine the right response/appropriate conflict management style
    • Convert the decision to an action
    • Test the action against the desired outcome
  240. What is a popular, effective process for conflict resolution?
    Peer-mediation process
  241. What is the purpose of discipline?
    To educate
  242. What are the three steps to progressive discipline?
    • Preventive action
    • Corrective action
    • Punitive action
  243. What two things did the Norris-La Guardia Act do?
    • 1. Made yellow-dog contracts unenforceable
    • 2. Allowed striking
  244. What did the National Industrial Recovery Act do?
    Guaranteed unions the right to conduct collective bargaining (but it was voided by SC)
  245. What did Wagner-Connery Act do?
    Established NLRB and tried to equalize power multiple ways
  246. What is the RBO
    Relations by Objectives developed by Phoenix for labor relations
  247. What are the three most effective means to provide life-safetyinfo while enhancing the organization's image?
    • Group presentations
    • Media programs
    • Direct assistance
  248. What is the purpose of a fire and life-safety program?
    to inform members of the community or service area bout he fire and life-safety hazards they face and what they can do to mitigate those hazards
  249. What are the five steps to a fire and life-safety program?
    • Identify (major problems)
    • Select (most cost effective objective)
    • Design (the program)
    • Implement (the plan)
    • Evaluate (the program)
  250. What three things should an objective be?
    Clear, measurable, and attainable
  251. Filing documents so they can be located based on multiple references is called...
    cross filing orcross referencing
  252. What are the two types of file storage?
    Active files and archives
  253. What are the five main record types?
    • Budget
    • Inventory
    • Maintenance (preventative and corrective)
    • Activity
    • Personnel
  254. Exposure and medical documentation must be kept for...
    30 years following the end of employment
  255. T/F: Training files should be kept private accept to those who have a legal reason to know?
  256. Preincident planning is...
    the entire process of gathering and evaluating information, deveolping procedures based on that information, and ensuring that the information remains current
  257. What are the four functions of preincident planning?
    • Developing positive relationships
    • Conducting the preincident survey
    • Managing preincident data
    • Developing preincident plans
  258. Should preincident surveys and code enforcement be combined?
  259. Who developes building codes?
    NFPA and ICC (International Code Council)
  260. What is included in building codes (4)?
    • Structural
    • Electrical
    • Plumbing
    • Safety Requirements
  261. What are construction classifications based on?
    Materials used and hourly fire-resistance ratings
  262. Type I building
    Fire-resistive construction
  263. Type II construction
    • Noncombustible/limited combustible
    • *may have untreated wood or tar on roof
  264. Type III construction
    • Ordinary construction
    • *Non-combustible exterior with wood interiors
  265. Type IV construction
    Heavy timber
  266. Type V construction
    • Wood-frame
    • *Mercantile occupancies, single-family and multifamily residences
  267. Most of the fuel load in commercial buildings comes from...
    Furnishings and other building contents
  268. What is the prefered method of cummunication?
    Face to face
  269. What are the two types of repeaters?
    • Apparatus
    • Geographical area
  270. What are the 5 C's of radio communication?
    • Conciseness
    • Clarity
    • Confidence
    • Control
    • Capability
  271. What Four people are members of the command staff?
    IC, PIO, Safety Officer, Liasion Officer
  272. Name five popular sections in the ICS?
    Operations, Planning, Logistics, Finance, Information
  273. What constitutes a branch?
    Functional or geographic responsibility above division/group but below section
  274. Division refers to
    geographic area
  275. Group refers to
    specific functional assignment
  276. Units have (in ICS)
    support functions (ie resources, documentation, etc)
  277. A task force is...
    any combination of resources (engines, ladders, etc) assmebled for a specific mission or operational assignment
  278. Strike team
    set number of resources of the same kind
  279. What 6 things are on an IAP?
    • Incident objectives
    • Organization assignment list
    • Assignment list
    • Radio communications plan
    • Medical plan
    • Operational planning worksheet
  280. What is the ICP
    Post where incident is commanded from
  281. What is the incident base
    Location where support functions take place
  282. What are camps
    Remote locations where auxillary functions are being run (ie providing food)
  283. Mobilization/staging areas
    Where things and people are held in reserve while waiting for operational assignment
  284. What is unity of command
    dictates that each responder has only one supervisor
  285. What is the order of incident priorities?
    • Life safety
    • Incident stabilization
    • Property conservation
  286. Hot zone has
    those responsible for disposing of the problem
  287. Warm zone has
    those directly supporting (lighting, hydraulic pumps, etc) those in the hot zone
  288. Cold zone
    area for IC, RIT, PIO, staged personnel/appartus
  289. What are the three constant priorities of any event?
    • Life safety
    • Incident stabilization
    • Property conservation
  290. What is RECEO-VS
    • Rescue
    • Exposures
    • Confinement
    • Extinguishment
    • Overhaul
    • Ventilation
    • Salvage
  291. Strategic goals are
    the overall plans for controlling an incident
  292. Yellow flame indicates
    reasonable air supply is reaching the fire
  293. Reddish-orange flame indicates
    less air is reaching the fire and the fire is fuel-driven
  294. Light yellow or clear flame indicates
    materials exposed to the main body of fire are beginning to ignite through pyrolysis
  295. Blue flame indicates
    combustion near the neubral plane and the high presence of unburned materials at that level
  296. Light color smoke indicates
    chemical change orccurring in areas adjuscent to the main body of fire and that the fire is developing
  297. Dark-colored smoke indicates
    burning synthetic or petrochemical materials or a reduction in the air available to the fire
  298. Thick dense smoke indicates
    burning of plastics or rubber
  299. Thin smoke indicates
    burning natural fiber materials
  300. High neutral plane indicates
    the fire is in early stages
  301. Midlevel neutral plane indicates
    compartment has not ventilated yet and that flashover is approaching
  302. Very low-level neutral plane indicates
    that the fire is reaching backdraft conditions
  303. Slow, smooth movement of air toward fire indicates
    fire is in early stages and is fuel-controlled
  304. Air movement is rapid and turbulent when a fire becomes
    ventilation controlled
  305. A sudden rush of air into a compartment can indicate
    backdraft condition is imminent
  306. Pulsation of smoke and whisteling can indicate a
  307. Blackened or crazzed glass indicate
    rich fuel and high temps. Caution when opening structure
  308. Blistered pain indicates
    extremem temperature and location of neutral plane
  309. Sudden increase in temp indicates
  310. Tactical objectives are
    statements of measurable outcomes
  311. Acheiving _____ leads to the completion of _____
    tactical objectives, strategic goals
  312. What does CAN stand for when transfering command?
    • Conditions
    • Actions
    • Needs
  313. What two things must an officer do after an incident is controlled and terminated?
    Determine cause and prepare postincident analysis/after action report
  314. A PIA does not
    find fault or place blame
  315. PIA information is used to...
    reinforce proper response activiteis or correct improper activities
  316. Basic cause determination consists of these three steps
    • Scene security
    • On-scene interviews
    • Report development
  317. What are the four classifications of fire cause?
    • Accidental
    • Natural
    • Incendiary
    • Undetermined
  318. What are the five steps of fire growth?
    • Ignition
    • Growth
    • Flashover
    • Fully developed
    • Decay
  319. Searching for the point of origin should start in the area with the ___ amount of damage
  320. Chain of custody
    Tracks evidence from when it is found to when it is returned to owner or destroyed
  321. PIA's look at
    • Strategy and tactics
    • Safety issues
  322. Safety issues in the PIA are assigned to the
  323. Strategy and tactics issues in the PIA are assigned to the
  324. A critique should happen within a
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