Instrumentation and Analytical Principles

  1. What type of assay encompasses a number of immunochemical techniques used to detect an extremely small amount of analyte (functions as antigen) by reacting it with an antibody (functions as reagent) to form and antigen-antibody complex?
  2. How do immunoassays dectect analytes?
    Form an antigen-antibody complex
  3. What increases the specificity of the immunoassay procedure?
    Monoclonal antibodies
  4. What is the term for antibodies produced in an animal from many cell clones in response to an immunogen; heterogeneous mixture of antibodies?
    Polyclonal antiserum
  5. What is the term for antibodies produced from a single clone or plasma cell line; homogeneous antibodies?
    Monoclonal antiserum
  6. What are immunoassays used to quantify?
    • Hormones
    • Tumor markers
    • Drugs
    • Other analytes present in small concentrations
  7. What assay is based on the competition between an unlabeled antigen (sample analyte) and a labeled antigen for an antibody?
    Competitive-binding immunoassay
  8. What assay requires that the free labeled antigen be physically removed from the labeled antigen bound to the antibody?
    Heterogeneous assays
  9. Name some examples of Heterogeneous assays
    • Radioimmunoassay (RIA)
    • Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)
    • Immunoradiometric assay (IRMA)
  10. What assays do NOT require the physical removal of free labeled antigen from bound-labeled antigen?
    Homogeneous assays
  11. What were the original labels used for immunoassays and what were they called?
    • Radioactive isotopes
    • Radioimmunoassay
  12. What are commonly used labels for immunoassays - today?
    • Nonradioactive labels
    • Enzyme
    • Fluorophore
    • Chemiluminescent labels
  13. What assay technique is a homogeneous immunoassay where the sample analyte (functions as unlabeled antigen) competes with the enzyme-labeled antigen for the binding sites on the antibody?
    Enzyme multiplied immunoassay technique (EMIT)
  14. What assay is based on measuring the degree to which fluorescence intensity is greater in one plane than in another (polarized versus depolarized)?
    Fluorescent polarization immunoassay (FPIA)
  15. Is FPIA (fluorescent polarization immunoassay) heterogeneous or homogeneous and how does it work?
    FPIA is a homogeneous technique where the sample analyte (functions as unlabeled antigen) competes with the fluorophorelabeled antigen for the binding sites on the antibody
  16. What does FPIA detect, polarized or depolarized light?
    Fluorescence polarization
  17. What is true about proportions and FPIA?
    The amount of analyte in the sample is inversely proportional to the amount of fluorescence polarization
  18. What is measured using FPIA?
    • Hormones
    • Drugs
    • Fetal pulmonary surfactant to assess fetal lung maturity
  19. What assay uses a technique between antigen and antibody that employs a chemiluminescent indicator molecule such as isoluminol and acridinium ester as labels for antibodies and haptens?
    Chemiluminescent immunoassay
  20. What assay is a homogeneous technique that is an adaptation of the chemiluminescent immunoassay?
    Luminescent oxygen channeling immunoassay (LOCI)
  21. What assay uses an indicator label such as ruthenium in sandwich and competitive immunoassays?
    Electrochemiluminescence immunoassay
  22. What do some instruments have that detect the amount of serum or plasma in the tube?
    Level-sensing probes
  23. What do some systems have that allows a bar-coded sample tubes to be loaded onto the instrument?
    Reading device
  24. How are dry reagents generally packaged and how are they reconstituted?
    • Packaged as lyophilized powder or tablet form
    • Reconstituted with a buffer or reagent-grade water
  25. What technique is employed by the Vitros analyzers when dealing with dry reagents?
    Dry reagents can be spread over a support material and assembled into a single-use slide
  26. Where does the mixing of the sample and reagents occur in?
    Occurs in a vessel called a cuvet
  27. What are the most common reaction temperatures used in testing?
    37 and 30 degrees Celcius
  28. What assay is the determines sample concentration where it is based on change in absorbance over time?
    Kinetic assays
  29. What assay is incubated for a specific time, absorbance determined, absorbance related to calibrators for calculation of sample concentration?
    Endpoint/colorimetric assays
  30. What part of most automated instruments has a data management system that allows analysis of quality control (QC) materials and assessment of patient values (i.e. delta checks) before releasing patient results?
    Computer module
  31. What is the term for when centrifugal force moves samples and reagents into cuvet areas for simultaneous analysis?
    Centrifugal analysis
  32. What is the term for when each sample reaction is compartmentalized?
    Discrete analysis
  33. What is the term for when you are able to perform individual tests or panels, and allow for stat samples to be added to the run ahead of other specimens?
    Random access
  34. What is the term for when samples are processed as a group?
    Batch analysis
  35. What is the term for when an instrument from a single dicipline with automated capability? 
  36. What is the term for when an instrument from a single dicipline has additional internal automated capability (i.e. auto-repeat and auto-dilute)?
    Automated stand-alone
  37. What is the term for when at least two instruments from a single discipline with one controller?
    Modular workcell
  38. What is the term for when the instrument is able to perform tests from at least two diciplines?
    Multiple platform
  39. What is the term for when at least two analytical modules are supported by one sample and reagent processing and delivery system?
    Integrated modular system
  40. What is the term for something that transports specimens quickly from one location to another?
    Pneumatic tube system
  41. What is the term for when the maximum number of tests are generated per hour?
  42. What is the term for the amount of time needed to generate one result?
  43. What is the term for the mechanism for patient/sample identification; used for reagent identification by an instrument?
    Bar coding
  44. What is the term for the amount of serum that cannot be aspirated?
    Dead volume
  45. What is the term for the contamination of a sample by a previously aspirated sample?
  46. What is the term for the use of preliminary test results to determine if additional tests should be ordered or cancelled on a particular specimen; performed manually or automated?
    Reflex testing
  47. What is the term for an automated systems that exist for laboratories where samples are received, centrifuged, distributed to particular instruments using a conveyor system, and loaded into the analyzer without operator assistance?
    Total laboratory automation
Card Set
Instrumentation and Analytical Principles
Immunochemical Techniques, Principles of Automation