malignant tumor composed of glandular tissue
inflammation of adenoid
surgical removal of an aneursym
process through which a tumor supports its growth by creating its own blood supply
deviated from what's considered normal
a disease fighting protein created by the immune system
agent that destroys or inhibits growth of fungi
substance that the body regards being as foreign
- medication capable of inhibiting growth
- killing pathogenic bacterial microorganism
used to treat viral infections and to provide temporary immunity
substance that causes death of bacteria
an agent that shows or stops growth of bacteria
- a group of proteins that normally circulates in the blood in inactive form.
- the ability of antibodies to ward off pathogens by combining with them to dissolve and remove foreign cells or substance
destroying old RBCs and releasing hemoglobin for reuse
herpes zoster (shingles)
- an acute viral infection
- causes painful skin eruptions that follow underlying route of an inflamed nerve
interferon (T cell)
- produced in response to the presence of antigens (i.e. virus or tumor)
- it slows down and/or prevents the production of antigens by signaling other cells
surgical removal of only cancerous tissue within normal tissue
- contains specialized lymphocytes capable of destroying pathogens
- there are three types: cervical, auxillary, and inguinal
inflammation of the lymph nodes
disease process affecting a lymph node(s)
abnormal swelling of tissues due to accumulation of lymph
- a hereditary condition that develops with swelling beginning in the feet and progressing into the ankles.
- usually occurs in females during puberty
caused by damage to lymphatic vessels that is affected by cancer treatment, surgery, trauma, or burns
- a type of leukocyte
- identifies pathogens and produces specific antibodies specially for the targeted pathogens
- three types: natural killer cells, B cells, and T cells.
a phagocytic cell that surrounds and engulfs pathogens.
- an acute highly contagious infection transmitted by respirating droplets of rubeola virus
- can cause sensitivity to light
new cancer site that results from spreading
cancer spreads from one place to another
an acute viral infection that is characterized by causing swelling of parotid glands (salivary gland)
- develop from B cells
- secrete a large volume of antibodies code to destroy specific antigens
long spiral shaped bacteria that have flexible walls
**parasitic worms found in dog poop**
an enlargement of the spleen due to bleeding from an injury, a disease, or abnormal condition of the immune system
- irregular groups or clusters resembling grapes
- reside on the skin and mucous membrane
- form a chain
- many are considered harmless but is responsible for strept throat and meningitis
- caused by herpe virus
- also known as chicken pox
- its high contagious causing fevers, rashes consisting of itchy blisters
what are the three functions of the lymphatic system?
- absorption of fats and fat soluble vitamins from the small intestine
- remove waste from tissues
- assist the immune system (tonsils, lymph nodes, thymus and spleen)
the lymphatic system is known as the _______ ___.
SECONDARY CIRCULATION for the transportation of lymph throughout the body.
- a clear watery fluid which transports proteins and waste products between cells
- it destroys bacteria and other pathogens in tissues
- filtered by lymph nodes along lymphatic vessels found throughout the body
does lymph flow in one direction?
yes! It flows in one direction to the venous circulation from the help of muscular movement and blood vessels.
- is plasma from arterial blood that flows out of the capillaries into spaces between the cells
- transports food, oxygen, and hormones
how much interstitial fluid is absorbed?
- 90% is reabsorbed back into the capillaries returning to venous circulation
- 10% is lymph which is NOT absorbed
microscopic and blind ended tubes near the body surface
- found deep within the tissues
- have valves to prevent back flow
right lymphatic duct
- collects lymph from the RIGHT side of the head/neck, the URQ, and right arm.
- drains lymph into the RIGHT subclavian vein
- is considered the LARGEST lymphatic vessel in the body.
- collects lymph from the LEFT side of head/neck, ULQ, entire lower portion of the trunk, and both legs.
- drains into the LEFT sublclavian vein
- three masses of lympoid tissue that form a protective ring around the back of the nose and upper throat.
- prevents pathogens from entering through the nose and mouth
- three types: adenoids, palatine, and lingual tonsils.
adenoid tonsils (nasopharyngeal)
located in the nasopharynx
located on right and left side of the throat area which is visible to the eye.
located at the base of the tongue.
- location: superior to the heart
- composed of lympoid tissue
- secretes a hormone that stimulates the maturation of lymphocytes into T cells
- a sac like mass of lymphoid tissue in the LUQ of the abdomen
- filters MO and other foreign material from the blood
- form lymphocytes and monocytes
- HEMOLYTIC PROCESS; breakdown of old RBCs and release their hemoglobin for reuse.
- stores extra RBCs and maintains balance between blood plasma and cells
- found in the wall of the ileum (portion of small intestine)
- lymphoid tissue
- found in the lower portion of the cecum (lrg intestine)
- it provides protection against invaders through the digestive system.
natural killer cells
- a type of lymphocyte
- kills cancer cells and viral infected cells
- a type of lymphocyte
- produce antibodies that are most effective to bacteria and viruses that circulate in the blood.
- destroys pathogens by confrontation with a code which then transform the B cell into plasma
- mature into plasma cells
- a type of lymphocyte
- play an important role in cell-mediated immunity
what is a lacteal?
specialized structures (villi) of the lymphatic system that absorbs fats that cannot be transported into the bloodstream.
describe the immune system's first line of defense
- intact skin with acid mantle; prevents bacteria from harboring on/into the skin.
- respiratory system; traps foreign matter into nose hairs and mucous membrane lining.
- digestive system; uses acids and enzymes produced by the stomach to destroy consumed invaders.
- lymphatic system and WBCs work together to attack and destroy pathogens
large cell that eats foreign matter
large herpes type virus that is commonly found in humans that can cause a variety of disease.
abnormal formation of cells in the tissue
not life threatening; not cancerous
harmful and capable of spreading; potentially life threatening
what are some substances that control infection?
what are some medications that control infection?
- bacteriostatic: inhibits the growth of bacteria
- involves binding antigens to antibodies
- also known as immune reaction
an acquired unresponsiveness to a specific antigen
- binds with specific antigens in the antigen-antibody response.
- there are 5 types.
natural immunity VS. acquired immunity
- natural immunity:
- also known as passive immunity
- it is the resistance to a disease present without the administration of an antigen or exposure to a disease.
acquired immunity: obtained by having a contagious disease then receiving immunization against it for protection. i.e. vaccine
a noninvasive method of Dx lymphedema
- also known as anaphylatic shock
- a severe response to an allergen
HIV- human immunodeficiency virus
a bloodborne infection in which the virus damages or kills the T cells of the immune system.
- caused by a pathogen that does not normally produce an illness in health humans
- example: kaposi's sarcoma
AIDS- acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
most advanced form and fatal stage of HIV
Tx to repress or interfere with the ability of the immune system to respond to the stimulation of antigens.
- a substance that prevents or reduces the body's normal immune response.
- administered to transplant recipients and those who have autoimmune disorders.
hormone-like preparation given primarily as an anti-inflammatory and as an immunosuppressant.
- a medication that kills or damages cells.
- used as an immunosuppressant.