BIO Host defenses

  1. Macrophages are
    large phagocytic cells hat wander through the interstitial fluid and "eat" bacteria and virus-infected cells that they encounter
  2. Phagocytosis =
    the engulfing and destroying of foreign substances by forming a vacuole that fuses with a lysosome
  3. two human host defenses are?
    • innate = non-specific
    • acquired = specific
  4. three lines of defense of body
    • 1st = surface protection
    • 2nd = cellular and chemical system (immediate is microbe gets past 1st line)
    • 3rd = specific defenses (unique for each microbe)
  5. 1st and second line of defense are under which system of immunity
    innate/non-specific (your born with this)
  6. acquired/specific line of defense is what line of defense?
    3rd line
  7. 4 innate defenses of the body are
    • physical
    • chemical
    • phagocytic defenses
    • inflammatory defenses
  8. give some examples of innate defenses
    • sebaceous glands
    • saliva (lysozyme)
    • low pH of skin
    • wax in ears
    • intact skin
    • cilia in trachea
    • sweat
    • mucous
    • defecation
    • urination
  9. 1st line of defense =
    • innate
    • skin
    • mucous membranes
    • chemicals
  10. 2nd line of defense is
    • chemical (innate)
    • phagocytosis
    • complement
    • interferon
    • inflammation
    • fever
  11. dendrite cells are
    cells that live in the dermis and can phagcytize foreign bodies
  12. what is the function of mucous
    microbes become stuck and are washed away
  13. what are primary sites of infecetions
    mucous membranes in resp tract, eyes, GI system
  14. what is most susceptible site of body for infections
    • Respiratory tract
  15. what is the ciliary elevator
    where cilia beat upward in the respiratory tract
  16. what are sterile areas in the body
    • blood
    • empty stomach
    • urine
    • lymphatics
  17. what are commensals in human body
    normal micorbiota make is difficult for pathogens to compete
  18. natural killer cells are
    not phagocytes they attack cancer cells and virus infected cells by releasing chemicals that promote programmed cell death
  19. Interferons =
    proteins produced by virus-infected cells that help other cells resist viruses
  20. the complement system =
    a group of about 30 different proteins that circulate in an inactive form in th blood and can act together with other defense mechanisms
  21. histamine =
    • what damaged cells release to incite inflammatory response
    • IT dilates vessels and makes them leakier allowing plasma and WBC to leak into th area
  22. where does pus come from
    whit blood cells egulfing bacteria and dying in the process
  23. septic shock  =
    • an overwhelming systemic inflammatory response
    • high fever and low BP
  24. lymphatic system function =
    • involved in innate and acquired immune response
    • returns tissue fluid to the circulatory system and fights infection
  25. lymph =
    fluid in the lymph system
  26. antigen =
    any foreign molecuel that elicits an acquired immune response
  27. antibodies =
    immune system proteins that are released in response to antigen rlease
  28. what is the immune connection cycle
    blood - extracellular fluid - reticuloendothelial system - lymphatics - blood
  29. granulocyte =
    • basophil - mold, pollens, allergic reactions
    • neutrophil - fight bacterial infections
    • eosinophil - worms
  30. agranulocytes =
    • monocytes - (viruses)
    • macrophages -
    • lymphocyte - (viruses)
  31. are leukocytes specific or non-specific
  32. are lymphocytes phagocytes
  33. phagocytes include
    • basophil
    • nutrophil
    • eosinophil
    • moncyte
    • macrophage
  34. which leukocyte is associated with t and B cells
  35. what leukocyte is most apparent in blood
    • Neutrophil then lymphocytes are biggest population in blood
    • basophils and eosinophils are lowest
  36. do bacteria have ways of resisting phagocytosis
    Yes they can release various toxins and other mechanisms
  37. Capsules are a way that bacteria can...
    defend themselves from phagocytosis
  38. MHC allows body to
    determine things that are self or non-self
  39. Listeria moncytogenes is associated with
  40. Shigella is associated with
    food poisoning
  41. Streptococcus pyogenes is associated with
    • flesh eating disease
    • strep throat
  42. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (what is special about this bacteria compared to all others)
    • acid fast bacteria
    • causes tuberculosis
  43. inflammation is
    nonspecific response to tissue damage
  44. kinins casue
  45. leukotrienes casue
    attract blood cells
  46. prostaglandins do what
    release histamine
  47. MAC =
    • membrane attack complex
    • pokes holes in membranes of pathogens which causes lysis
  48. Interferons =
    • proteins made and released by host cells in response to the presence of pathogens
    • they allow communication between cells to trigger the protective defense of the immune system.
Card Set
BIO Host defenses
BIO host defenses