Sociology Test

  1. Social Problems Early 1900’s
    social problems were behaviors that did not conform to social norms
  2. Social Problems 1920’s + 30’s
    social disorganization

    • Social disorganization theory Concentric zone model  
    • Zone 1: Central business district  
    • Zone 2: Zone in transition (recent immigrants) “Inner city”
    • Zone 3: Town houseso  
    • Zone 4: Suburbs  
    • Zone 5: People who work in zone 1
  3. Strain theory
    • gap between goals and means (Anomie)
    • culturally mandate goals -> American Dream
    • Culturally mandate means -> hard work and education
  4. Strain theory (3 types of people)
    • Retreatists -> reject goals and means   Ritualists -> doesn’t seek goals  
    • Rebel -> keeps goals rejects means (commits crimes)
  5. Labeling theory
    Self-fulfilling prophecy
  6. Social Problems: Subjective
    • 1. Scientists do not agree on the definition of social problems
    • 2.It is not value free
    • 3.Those with power set the problems and how we define them
  7. Social Problems: Objective
    • 1. There are conditions that induce suffering in some segments of the population
    • 2.Socio-cultural factors prevent people from developing to their full potential
    • 3.Discrepancies between the ideals of US life and the conditions in which some people live
    • 4.Some actions are deemed damaging in any context
  8. Sociological Imagination
    the ability to seethe impact of social forces on individuals, especially on their private lives.
  9. Social Problem
    A social conditionthat is perceived to be harmful to more than just a few people.
  10. Social Problems: Functionalist theory
    every part of societyperforms a certain function for the society as a whole.
  11. Dysfunction
    the failure of somepart of society to perform their function and the resulting disruptions
  12. Manifest function
    a function that is intended and widely recognized
  13. Latent function
    a function that is unintended and unrecognized
  14. Social Problems: Conflict theory
    sees society as always changing and always marked by conflict
  15. Class conflict
    struggle between those who own the means to produce and the laborers
  16. Proletariat
  17. Bourgeoisie
    people who own the means to produce
  18. Social Problems: Symbolic Interaction theory
    views society asbeing made of countless social interactions
  19. Detached observation
    researcher observes as an outsider
  20. Participant observation
    researcher takes part in the activities of the group being studied
  21. Ethnography
    an analysis of people’s lives from their own perspective
  22. Absolute poverty
    the lack of minimal food and shelter necessary for maintaining life
  23. Relative Poverty
    a state of deprivationresulting from an individual having less than the majority of the people intheir society
  24. Poverty: Funcionalist theory
    attributes economic inequality to the positive functions it performs for society
  25. Poverty: Conflict theory
    blames inequality on the exploitation of the powerless by the powerful
  26. Poverty: Symbolic Interaction theory
    focuses on how inequality influences the interaction between the powerful and the powerless that reinforces the gulf between rich and poor.
  27. Progressive Taxation
    government’s attempt to reduce economic inequality by taxing the rich more than the poor
  28. Race
    • a group of people who are perceived by a given society to be biologically different from otherso  
    • Socially constructed
  29. Ethnic group
    a collection of people who share a distinctive cultural heritage
  30. Minority
    • a racial or ethnicgroup that is victimized by prejudice and discrimination
    • (lacks power privilegeand prestige)
    • (not based on #)
  31. Prejudice
    a negative attitude toward a certain category of people
  32. Power = ?
    Money + control of institutions
  33. Discrimination
    an unfavorable action against individuals that is taken because they are a member of a certain category
  34. Overt discrimination
    based on own prejudices towards others
  35. Adaptive discrimination
    based on the prejudices of others
  36. American Dilemma
    the discrepancy between the ideal of equality and the reality of inequality in the US
  37. Glass ceiling
    the prejudice belief that keeps minority professionals from holding leadership positions
  38. Racism
    the belief that one’s own race or ethnicity is superior to that of others

    • 3 types
    • 1. Extermination (genoside)
    • 2. Expulsion
    • 3. Segregation
  39. De jure segregation
    sanctioned by law (Jim Crow laws)
  40. De fact segregation
    results from tradition or custom
  41. Institutionalized discrimination
    the persistence of discrimination in social institutions that is not necessarily recognized as discrimination byeveryone
  42. Affirmative action
    a policy that requires colleges and employers to make special efforts to recruit qualifiedminorities and women for jobs, promotions, and educational opportunities
  43. Hate Crimes
    • violence motivated by prejudice or bias  
    • 1. Thrill (most common)
    • 2. Defensive (“you don’t belong”)
    • 3. Mission (devote life to bigotry)
  44. Ethnocentrism
    when you view all other cultures as negative or weird and judge them against yours
  45. Culturally relative
    view other cultures from the lense of our without judgment
  46. Apartheid
    the racial separation in housing, jobs, and political opportunities
  47. Race: Funcionalist theory
    • 3 kinds of social practices can eliminate racial and ethnic inequality
    • 1.Assimilation -> process by which a minority adopt the culture of the larger society
    • 2. Amalgamation -> process by which various groups blend subcultures to form a new culture
    • 3.Cultural pluralism -> coexistence among various groups allowing each to retain its own subculture
  48. Race: Conflict theory
    • larger social forces cause inequality
    • 1. Sociological -> children mimic the prejudices of the adults that surround them
    • 2. Economic -> widespread prejudices and discrimination against minorities ensure job security for dominant group
    • 3. Political -> preventing minorities from voting
  49. Race: Symbolic Interaction theory
    if members of dominant group perceive minorities negatively the interaction between them is tense and superficial
  50. Stereotypes
    an oversimplified inaccurate mental picture of others
  51. Sex
    biological, determined by genitallia
  52. Gender
    • Socially constructed, all of the things expected of your sex
    • Gender is a cultural universal, what is not universal is the expectations (socially constructed)
    • Economic change -> change in family unit = change in gender roles
  53. Socialization
    • the process of learning your culture
    • To change anything we have to change the way we socialize
  54. Patriarchy
    male dominance or male rule
  55. Double-shift
    women work a shift outside the home and then another when they get home
  56. Gender inequality
    the difference in the amount of rewards that males and females are socially expected to get
  57. Gender roles
    • the pattern of attitude and behavior that society expects of its member as males and females
    • Female gender roles = negative
    • Male gender roles = positive
    • Women inferior to men
  58. Sexism
    prejudice and discrimination based on one’s sex
  59. Sexual harassment
    an unwelcome act of sexual nature
  60. Quid pro quo
    “You can keep your job if …”
  61. Gender: Functionalist theory
    • it is functional for society to assign different tasks to men and women
    • Instrumental role (men) -> a role that requires performance of a task
    • Expressive role (women) -> a role that requires taking care of a personal relationship
    • These two complete each other
  62. Gender: Conflict theory
    gender inequalities arose from exploitation of women by men
  63. Gender: Symbolic Interaction theory
    Interaction between men and women often sustains or reinforces gender inequality
  64. Feminism
    • the belief that women and men should be equal in various aspects of their lives
    • 1st wave -> 19th century -> suffrage
    • 2nd wave -> mid – 1960’s -> gender equality
    • 3rd wave -> 1990’s -> more inclusive (focused on bigger issues)
  65. Dating Violence
    • need 1 of 3 things
    • 1.Threat or use of force
    • 2. Cohersed or forced sexuality
    • 3. Emotional abuse
    • If any form of abuse is present emotional abuse is also present
    • All forms of abuse are about control
  66. Phases of life
    • 1. Childhood -> learning everything about living in society
    • 2.Adolescence -> uniquely western life stage (awkward)
    • 3. Early Adulthood -> Independent financially
    • 4. Middle Adulthood -> acceptance or satisfaction with life
    • 5.Late Adulthood -> a time of major reflection and change
    • 6. Old Age -> focus = dying
  67. Ageism
    prejudice and discrimination against old people
  68. Senescence
    the natural physical process of aging
  69. Crystalline intelligence
    wisdom and insight into the human condition (language, philosophy, music, painting)
  70. Fluid intelligence
    ability to grasp abstract relationships (math, physics, sciences)
  71. Older people more valued and respected in traditional societies than in modern ones
    not socialized for death
  72. No social security due to ?
    Small workforce and low wages
  73. Means-testing
    the system of determining whether a person is qualified for help from the  government which effectively refuses social security benefits to the wealthy
  74. Age: Functionalist theory
    (disengagement theory) age inequality leads to being socially disadvantaged and devalued whichleads to disengagement
  75. Age: Conflict theory
    (minority theory) older people in society treated as oppressed minority
  76. Age: Symbolic Interaction theory
    (activity theory)high frequency interaction among the elderly is age related, creates aseparation and thus inequality between older and younger groups
Card Set
Sociology Test
This are my flash cards for my Social Problems Sociaology Test