what is the role of phosphodiesterase?
degrade cAMP and cGMP to inactive monophosphate
what are the targets of cyclic nucleotides?
kinases and channels
what are the targets of calcium?
calmodulin, PKC, calpain, calcium release channels
what are the targets of receptors?
PKC, seven helix receptors
what are the targets of nitric oxide?
what is the role of guanylylcyclases?
trigger production of cGMP
how are guanylyl cyclases produced?
- ligand bound to ANF receptor
what are cyclic nucleotide gated channels?
Na/Ca channels gated by cAMP or cGMP binding to a cytoplasmic domain
what are the physiology of calcium?
- synaptic transmission
- muscle contraction
how are calcium produced and removed?
enters cytoplasm through channels in ER and PM and pumped out of cytoplasm
what can be used to measure ionized calcium?
aequorin from aequorea victoria
what are the physiology of lipids?
smooth muscle contraction, inflammation, immune responses, platelet aggregation
what are the three parent lipids?
activation of PLC generates what?
IP3 and diacylglycerol, which in turn activates PKC
what are the physiology of nitric oxide?
killing microorganisms, smooth muscle relaxation and neuromodulation
how does exercise increase blood flow?
muscle contractions, increase in Ca-CAM, increase in NOS and NO, move into vascular smooth muscle, activate G-cyclase, cGMP, lowers Ca, relaxes smooth muscle
how does the treatment of angina with NO dilate blood vessels?
nitroglycerin, NO, vascular smooth muscle, dilates coronary blood vessels
what does cell-substratum signaling entail?
- EMC (fibronectin, collagen, proteoglycans) to integrin
- integrin activates signals
- leads to growth, migration, differentiation
- acts via Src (SH2 domains), FAK activeate rho (small GTP binding protein-activate IP2, changes in cytoplasm)
what is the effect of signaling of extracellular matrix to cytoskeleton?
- activates myosin for contraction
- works to increase PIP2 to lead to actin assembly (releasing gelsolin from actin capping function)
- releasing profilin from actin monomer sequestering activity