Sports and fitness midterm review

  1. Roles of the Sport andExercise Psychologist
    Research: Inquiry aimed at advancing knowledge and sharing it through professional meetings and journal articles

    Teaching: Teaching university courses in either psychology or exercise and sport science

    Consulting: Working with athletes of all ages and abilities in the fitness industry and in sports medicine and physical therapy
  2. ColemanGriffith
    Father of American psychology
  3. what was the first experiment tried on
    Cycling experiment to enhance metal performance  
  4. Competence
    Maintainthe highest standards in your work and recognize the limits of your expertise.
  5. Personality
    • •The characteristics or blend of characteristics that make a person unique•
    • The structure of personality
    • :–Psychological core–
    • Typical responses–
    • Role-related behavior
  6. Approaches toUnderstanding Personality
    • •Psychodynamic approach
    • •Trait approach
    • •Situational approach
    • •Interactional approach
    • •Phenomenological approach
  7. Psychodynamic Approach
    • •Behavior is determined by several unconscious, constantly changing factors that often conflict with one another
    • .•Emphasis is placed on understanding the person as a whole rather than identifying isolated traits.
    • sigman floyd  most popular approch
  8. Trait Approach
    • •Behavior is determined by relatively stable traits that are fundamental units of personality
    • .These traits predispose one to act in a certain way, regardless of the situation
  9. Perfectionism
    •Perfectionism has been one of the most widely studied personality characteristics in sport psychology in recent years.

    • Perfectionism is a multidimensional construct that consists of various components, including setting high standards, feeling concern over mistakes, and being highly organized.  
    • •Depending on the specific components characterizing one’s perfectionistic personality, perfectionism can lead to both highly positive and extremely negative consequences (maladaptive versus adaptive perfectionism).
  10. Situational Approach
    • •Behavior is determined largely by the situation or environment.
    • •The situation is a more important determinant of behavior than particular personality traits.
    • •The situational approach is not as widely embraced by most sport psychologists.
  11. Interactional Approach
    • •Behavior is determined by both the person and the situational factors as well as by their interaction.
    • •The majority of contemporary sport and exercise psychologists favor the interactional approach.
    • most popular approch
  12. Phenomenological Approach
    • •Behavior is best determined by accounting for situational and personal characteristics
    • .•A person’s understanding and interpretation of one’s self and environment are critical.
    • •The phenomenological view is often stressed by today’s sport psychologists.
  13. trait
    is atypical style of behavior
  14. State
    •is the situation’s effect on behavior—a “right now” feeling that can change from moment to moment.
  15. Dos in Personality Testing
    • •DO inform participants about the purpose of the personality test and exactly how it will be used.
    • •DO allow only qualified individuals who have an understanding of testing principles and measurement error to give personality tests.
    • •DO integrate personality test results with other information obtained about the participant.
    • •DO use sport- and exercise-specific tests whenever possible, giving them in consultation with a sport psychologist.
    • •DO use both state and trait measures of personality.
    • •DO provide participants with specific feedback concerning the results of the test.
    • •DO compare individuals against their own baseline levels rather than against normative information.
  16. Don’ts in PersonalityTesting
    • •DON’T use clinical personality tests that focus on abnormality to study an average population of sport and exercise participants.
    • •DON’T use personality tests to decide who makes a team or program and who doesn’t.
    • •DON’T give or interpret personality tests unless you are qualified to do so by the APA or another certifying organization.
    • •DON’T use personality tests to predict behavior in sport and exercise settings without considering other sources of information.
  17. profile of mood
    vigor highest point
  18. Type A behavior patterns
    • •(particularly the anger–hostility component) are associated with cardiovascular disease and appear to be altered via exercise
    • .Exercise and increased fitness appear to be associated with increases in self-esteem especially in individuals with low self-esteem
  19. Understanding Personality
    • •Consider both personality traits and situations.
    • •Be an informed consumer.
    • •Be a good communicator.
    • •Be a good observer.
    • •Be knowledgeable about mental strategies.
  20. Motivation
    • •is the direction and intensity of effort.
    • –Direction of effort refers to whether an individual seeks out, approaches, or is attracted to situations.
    • –Intensity of effort refers to how much effort an individual puts forth in a situation.
  21. Views of Motivation
    • •Participant- or trait-centered view
    • •Situation-centered view
    • •Interactional view
  22. How to IdentifyParticipant Motives
    • •Observe participants.
    • •Talk informally to others
    • .Ask participants directly
  23. Achievement motivation
    is a person’s orientation to strive for task success, persist in the face offailure, and experience pride in accomplishments

    Self-comparisonof achievement.
  24. Attribution Theory
    • •Attributions: How people explain their successes and failures
    • •Examples include the following:
    • –Stability
    • –Locus of causality
    • –Locus of control
  25. Achievement Goal Theory
    • •Outcome goal orientation (or competitive goal orientation): Comparing performance with and defeating others.
    • •Task (mastery) goal orientation: Improving relative to one’s own past performances.
    • •Social goal orientation: Judging competence in terms of affiliation with the group and recognition of being liked by others.
  26. Keys of Achievement GoalTheory
    • •Focus extra attention on task-oriented goals.
    • •Foster mastery or task motivational climates.
  27. Stages of DevelopingAchievement Motivation and Competitiveness
    • •Autonomous competence stage
    • •Social comparison stage
    • •Integrated (self- and social-comparison) stage
  28. learn helplessness
     is the condition of a human or animal that has learned to behave helplessly, failing to respond even though there are opportunities for it to help itself by avoiding unpleasant circumstances or by gaining positive rewards
  29. Appointedor prescribed leaders
    areindividuals appointed by some authority to a leadership position (e.g., healthclub manager, coach, head athletic trainer).
  30. Emergent leaders
    areindividuals who emerge from a group and take charge (e.g., captain of anintramural team, student leader of an exercise class).
  31. Behavioral Guidelines for coaches
    • –Do provide reinforcement immediately after positive behaviors and reinforce effort as much as results.
    • Do give encouragement and corrective instruction immediately after mistakes. Emphasize what the athlete did well, not what the athlete did poorly
    • –Don’t punish when athletes make a mistake. Fear of failure is reduced if you work to reduce fear of punishment.
    • –Don’t give corrective feedback in a hostile, demeaning, or harsh manner; that is likely to increase frustration and build resentment.–Do maintain order by establishing clear expectations. Use positive reinforcement to strengthen the correct behaviors rather than punishment of incorrect behaviors.
    • –Don’t get into the position of having to constantly nag or threaten athletes to prevent chaos.
    • –Do use encouragement selectively so that it is meaningful. Encourage effort but don’t demand results.
    • Do provide technical instruction in a clear, concise manner and demonstrate how to perform the skill whenever possible
  32. Consequences ofLeadership
  33. effective leadership
    • Leaders qualities
    • situatioal factors
    • leasdershop styles
    • follower's qualities
  34. Leader Qualities
    • •Effective leaders have integrity, flexibility, loyalty, confidence, accountability, candor, preparedness, resourcefulness, self-discipline, and patience.
    • Effective leaders mobilize and focus the physical, mental, and emotional energy resources of themselves and of team members toward the team objectives
  35. behavior therory
    leaders are made not born
Card Set
Sports and fitness midterm review
midterm review sports psychology