1. What are protozoa
    • single celled organism
    • some are Flagellates
  2. Flagellum
    hair like structures that whip back and forth allowing them to move around
  3. Beaver Fever
  4. Giardia host and habitat
    • any animal
    • small intestines
  5. Giardia Spp.
    • Giardia canis
    • Giardia lamblia
    • Giardia cati
    • Giardia bovi
  6. Giardia identification
    • Dormant/resistant:
    • cyst stage is lemon/football shaped

    • Fedding/motile:
    • trophozoites (troph.), teardrop shape with 4 pairs of flagella and 2 nuclei
  7. Giardia distribution
    wide spread, occurs in certain areas, old standing water
  8. Giardia transmission
    • ingestion of cyst
    • contaminated food or water or feces
  9. Giardia clinical signs
    • small numbers:
    • may be asymptomatic
    • large numbers:
    • watery diarrhea, may be blood tinged, acute or chronic, could be explosive
  10. Giardia diagnosis
    • very difficult to find, need very fresh sample
    • direct smear with iodine or NMB to see trophs, and cysts
    • floatation device to see cysts
    • snap test available
  11. ccontrol Giardia
    • use 10% bleach to disinfect objects
    • prevent contamination of feed and water bu fecal material
  12. make 10% bleach
    • C1 x V1 = C2 x V2
    • 100% x V1 = 10% x 100mL
    • V1 = 10% x 100mL/100%
    • V1 = 100mL of bleach mixed with 900mL of water
  13. Giardia treatment
    • Metronidazole = Flagyl
    • Fenbendazole = Panacur
  14. what is Coccidia
    • common in mammals
    • causes condition termed coccidiosis
    • intracellular parasites
    • some require an intermediate host
  15. 2 types of Coccidia
    • Isospora spp.
    • Eimeria spp.
  16. Coccidia habitat and distribution
    • with the cells of the small intestine
    • wide spread (very common)
  17. Coccidia large animal host and symptoms
    • sheep, goat, cattle, poultry
    • bloody diarrhea and high mortality in feedlot animals
  18. Coccidia transmission
    • fecal/oral transmission
    • ingestion of sporulated oocysts containing the infective stage called sporozoites
  19. Coccidia sporulation requires:
    • moisture
    • oxygen
    • moderate temps.
  20. Isospora felis
    • life cycle may include sporocysts being located within mouse tissues
    • cat becomes infected by consuming the infected mouse tissue
  21. coccidia immunity
    • specific immunity to natural infection may develop in individuals
    • immunity short lived
    • vaccines are available for production animals (limited use)
  22. Coccidia signs
    • Chronic diarrhea
    • Adults:
    • mostly self-limiting and no severe signs
    • Young:
    • watery, yellow or bloody stool, dehydration and weight loss, can be fatal
  23. Coccidia diagnosis
    • Floatation
    • oocysts or sporocysts
    • Direct Smear
    • may see them but can be difficult
  24. Coccidia control
    • Sanitation (can live up to 1 year in soil)
    • Oocysts are destroyed by:
    • drying up or sunlight
  25. Coccidia treatment
    • Sulfadimethoxine = Albon
    • Metronidazole = Flagyl
  26. Cryptosporidium host and habitat
    • dogs, cats, humans, swine, and cattle
    • small intestine
  27. Cryptosporidium diagnosis
    small colorless and transparent oocysts found by fecal floatation or stained fecal smears
  28. Infection in _______________ humans can have serious or fatal consequences
  29. Cryptosporidium parvum treatment
    • no labeled treatment for cattle
    • drugs available for humans
    • cost-prohibitive and illegal
    • hope for herd immunity
    • some try high doses of ionophores
    • keep calves in clean area
    • separate immediately after calving
  30. Toxoplasma gondii
  31. Toxoplasma gondii host
    • Int: birds, humans, and other mammals
    • Def: cat
  32. Toxoplasma gondii identification
    oocyst in fecal float-very small and often missed
  33. Toxoplasma gondii habitat
    • Cat- small intestines (can go through any other part of the body)
    • Other species- muscle tissue, brain, and liver
    • Fetus- brain and CNS, can be fatal, cause abortion and retardation
  34. Toxoplasma gondii distribution
    world wide
  35. Toxoplamsa gondii transmission
    • cat ingest sporulated oocysts
    • cat ingest intermediate host
    • transplacentral
    • infected uncooked meat ingested by human
  36. Toxoplasma gondii symptoms
    • People:
    • flu-like symptoms and fever
    • Cats:
    • wt. loss, fever, anorexia, possible seizures
    • Fetus (human):
    • retardation, microcephally (small brain), hydrocephally (water in brain), blindness
  37. Toxoplasma gondii diagnosis
    serological testing
  38. Toxoplasma gondii control and treatment
    • killed by heat or by ammonia
    • Pyrimethamin administration to dogs and cats
  39. Trichomonas in cattle
    • associated with abortions and decreased fertility
    • motile
    • a venereal disease, spread from cow to cow by infected bull
    • can have a white sticky discharge for several months
  40. Trichomonas spp. in humans
    Trichomonas vaginalis
  41. Hemosporidians
    in red blood cells (intracellular)transmitted by arthropods (insects)
  42. Babesi host and transmission
    • dogs:
    • B. canis
    • B. gibsoni
    • transmitted by tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus
    • Host-specific
  43. Babesia signs in dogs and diagnosis
    • anemia and splenomegaly
    • wright-stain blood smears, found in feathered end of blood smear
  44. Trypanosoma
    • flagellated protozoa appearing extracellular in bllod
    • most non-pathogenic, but some are a concern
  45. what causes Trypanosoma
    caused of the African Sleeping Sickness spread by the tsetse fly
  46. Trypanosoma host
    • not host-specific (more than one species may be found in one animal
    • cattle, pigs, horses, dogs, humans
  47. reservoirs of Trypanosoma
    • wild animals
    • in NA:
    • raccoon, opossums, armadillos, skunks
  48. Trypanosoma appearance
    elongated organisms haveing pointed, blunt or round posterior end
  49. where do you examen for Trypanosoma
    the buffy coat
  50. Cytauxzoon felis
    • rings found in the RBC
    • Transmission-ticks
    • Affects-bobcats, panthers, and cougars
  51. Theileria
    • east coast fever in africa
    • affects RBC's
    • may be found in cattle, deer, and elk
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