Polymers consisting of chains of amino acids linked together. They are very important and play a role in almost every biological function
an organic compound
that contains an amino group and a carboxylate group in ionic form
What re the 4 classifications of amino acids? What are these classifications based on?
- polar but neutral
- These classifications are based on the side chains
Are the 20 common amino acids alpha or beta amino acids?
Alpha (because the amino group is linked to the carbon attached to the COO- group)
Are most amino acids in L or R form?
L (NH3 group is on the left)
a dipolar ion that carries both a negative and a positive charge
Are amino acids amphoteric?
Yes, they can act as either an acid or a base
the characteristic pH of an amino acid where there is no net charge (molecules have
equal positive and negative charges)
a carboxylic group of one amino acid reacts with the amino group from a second amino acid
compound formed from 2 amino acids are bonded by an amide linkage
an amino acid polymer of short chain length
an amino acid chain of intermediate length (~ 50 amino acids)
a long chain amino acid polymer of more than 50 amino acids
an amino acid that is part of a peptide, polypeptide or protein chain
amino acid residue
an amino acid on the end of the chain that has an unreacted, free amino group
an amino acid on the end of a chain that has an unreacted, free carboxylate group
Made up of long rod-shaped / string-like molecules that intertwine to form fibers
Water insoluble (eg. skin, hair, nails, fur, spider webs)
Structural proteins (eg. collagen, elastin, keratin)
More spherical; either dissolves in water or forms a stable suspension
Transport proteins (eg. enzymes, hemoglobin)
Moved through the body by the circulatory system
A protein made up of only amino acid residues
a protein made up of amino acid residues and other organic or inorganic components
the non-amino acid group of a conjugated protein (may be metals, lipids or carbohydrates)
a chemical or physical agent that destroys the secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure,
but leaves the primary structure intact
heating of a peptide or protein in the presence of acid or base to break into smaller peptides or
Protein Infections particle
Transmissible agents that do NOT contain DNA/RNA
The order of amino acid residues that make up a protein chain
Give two examples of secondary structures
- Alpha helix
- Beta pleated sheet
What type of bonds are involved in the secondary structure of a protein?
The following types of interactions are involved in the ___ structure of a protein:
Metal Ion coordination
Does a peptide bond rotate?
No, peptide bonds are planar (because the double bond flips between oxygen and nitrogen)
Denaturation by reduction typically involves reducing ____ to _____
cystine to cysteine
Does denaturation break the primary structure of a protein?
Does a quaternary structure involve multiple proteins?