Med Lab Chemistry Unit

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  1. Chemistry is a department that uses:
    • Chemical
    • analysis to monitor health and disease
  2. Sample used in chemistry department is
    Usually serum or plasma, can be urine, CSF or other bodily fluids
  3. Chemical levels are used to
    • Diagnose and treat disease by comparing the patients’ results to normal
    • range
  4. Most reports are reported quantitatively which means:
    A number, not pos or neg
  5. Tests performed in chemistry can be ordered in
  6. Single test example
    Glucose, cholesterol
  7. Group of chemical types example
    Lipids, electrolytes
  8. Organ
    system test group example
    Liver, thyroid, or renal function
  9. Insurance/Medicare grouping of tests example
    • Basic
    • metabolic profile or comprehensive metabolic profile
  10. Automated instruments in some PoL’s are for
    Tests that are moderately complex
  11. Principle used in several benchtop models
    Reflectance photometry
  12. Reflectance photometry works by
    • Reflecting light off the chemical pad; where the amount of chemical is
    • greater, the amount of light reflected is greater where the reaction occurred
  13. Every instrument comes with
    An operator manual
  14. Things to be familiar with (pertaining to instruments in the chem lab)
    • How to calibrate and safely, correctly operate the instrument, the
    • model #, serial # and how to contact the manufacturer
  15. Controls can be 3 different what
    Levels or ranges
  16. Three ranges controls can be
    Normal, abnormal high, abnormal low
  17. How many levels of controls CLIA says you have to run daily (if running
    test on patient sample)
  18. CLIA requirements in PoL
    • Two levels of control, Calibrate every 6 months (document), Action logs
    • must be kept on problems with QC or instruments, how they are corrected
  19. QC cannot tell you
    • If sample was collected properly, processed properly, transported under
    • proper conditions
  20. Fasting specimen
    Only water for 12 hours, meds okay unless interferes with test
  21. Fasting specimen good for
    Lipids, glucose
  22. Random specimen
    Anytime, food does not affect results
  23. Medication specimen: Trough
    • Right
    • before next dose
  24. Medication specimen: Peak
    • Right
    • after a dose is given
  25. Medication specimen: Timed
    A certain # of hours after a dose is given
  26. Post prandial specimen
    • After
    • a meal is completed, usually 2 hours
  27. Post prandial specimen typically used for
  28. Lipids are called what
  29. Elevation of lipids add to risk of
    Obesity, heart attack
  30. Lipids come from what 2 sources to make up
    Total cholesterol
  31. What makes endogenous lipids?
    Liver, genetically controlled
  32. What makes exogenous lipids?
    Foods you eat
  33. Needed to determine lipid level
    Blood test
  34. Elevated cholesterol, higher risk of
    Coronary Heart Disease
  35. Cholesterol makes what on the walls of your arteries
    White, waxy fat lines
  36. Condition of cholesterol lining the walls of arteries
  37. Atherosclerosis
    HDL plus LDL
  38. Test done for cholesterol
    Lipid Profile
  39. HDL stands for
    High Density Lipoproteins
  40. High or low HDL good?
  41. HDL good or bad cholesterol?
  42. What do HDL do?
    Take cholesterol from tissues to liver to be broken down
  43. LDL stands for
    Low Density Lipoprotein
  44. High or low LDL good?
  45. LDL
    good or bad cholesterol?
  46. What do LDL do?
    Sticks to blood vessel walls
  47. Normal ranges for TOTAL CHOLESTEROL
    30-200 mg/dL
  48. Borderline high risk for TOTAL CHOLESTEROL
    200-239 mg/dL
  49. High risk range for Coronary Heart Disease (TOTAL CHOLESTEROL)
    >240 mg/dL
  50. Normal
    range for HDL
    40-60 mg/dL
  51. Better-than-normal range for HDL
  52. HDL level that indicates an increased risk of CHD
    <40 mg/dL
  53. Normal range for LDL
    <130 mg/dL
  54. LDL level that indicates an increased risk of CHD
    >130 mg/dL
  55. Four causes of high TOTAL CHOLESTEROL
    Atherosclerosis, hypothyroidism, obstructive jaundice, nephrosis
  56. Atherosclerosis, hypothyroidism, obstructive jaundice, nephrosis
    Malabsorption, anemia, hyperthyroidism, liver disease
  57. Patient prep for cholesterol testing includes
    12 hour fasting
  58. Triglyceride is the main form of what
    Lipid storage in humans
  59. Triglyceride makes up 95% of what
    Fat (adipose tissue)
  60. Fat (adipose tissue)
  61. Desirable range of triglycerides in normal adults
    <150 mg/dL
  62. Level of triglycerides affected by
  63. What sample gives most accurate triglyceride results?
  64. Really high triglyceride levels cause plasma/serum to appear what color?
    What is it called?
    Milky, lipemic

    Triglyceride level, along with obesity and high cholesterol that causes
    risk of atherosclerosis
  66. Low triglycerides could be caused by these two things
    Hyperthyroidism, malnutrition
  67. Two tests of kidney function
    BUN, Creatinine
  68. BUN stands for
    Blood Urea Nitrogen
  69. What does BUN test for?
    Levels of urea in blood
  70. What happens to excess amino acids in the body?
    Converted to urea
  71. Where are they filtered from the blood?
  72. When glomeruli aren’t functioning, what happens to urea?
    It builds up in the blood
  73. Uremia is what?

    Toxic condition of too much urea buildup in blood

    Toxic condition of too much urea buildup in blood
  75. Normal range for BUN
    7-25 mg/dL
  76. Sample used for BUN test
    • Random
    • plasma/serum
  77. > 25 mg/dL BUN test can be due to one of these 5 things
    • High protein diet, steroids, dehydration, kidney disease/failure,
    • kidney obstruction (tumor, kidney stone)
  78. < 7 mg/dL BUN test can be due to one of these 5 things
    • Starvation, pregnancy, low protein diet, liver failure, impaired absorption
    • of the amino acids that are converted to urea
  79. Creatinine is a
    Waste product of creatine phosphate
  80. Creatinine is stored
    In muscle
  81. Creatinine is used for
  82. Normal range of Creatinine in normal adults
    0.6-1.5 mg/dL
  83. Sample used for Creatinine
    Random serum/plasma
  84. > 1.5 mg/dL result on Creatinine test can be due to 1 of these 6
    • Muscle disease, renal disease, water imbalance, shock, nephritis,
    • obstruction (like kidney stone)
  85. < 0.6 mg/dL result on Creatinine test can be due to
    Muscular dystrophy
Card Set
Med Lab Chemistry Unit
Introduction, tests, controls, calibrating equipment, quality control, types of tests, LIPIDS PANELS
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