Chapter 18 - Blood

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  1. What are the three functions of the Circulatory system? What do each part do?
    • Transport:
    • - Carries oxygen from lungs to body tissues and picks up carbon dioxide. Delivers nutrients, gets rid of weastes, carries hormones and stem cells.

    • Protection:
    • - Limits spread of infection, destroy patogens and promotes blood clotting.

    • Regulation:
    • - Help stabilize fluid distribution to the bodfy, helps stablize ph of exracellular cells, and shifts blood flow to regulate temperature of body.
  2. What are the 4 components of blood? Define them.
    • Erythrocytes
    • - Red Blood Cells
    • Leukocytes
    • - White blood cells
    • Platelets
    • Plasma
    • -  Plasma is a complex mixture of water, proteins, nutrients, electrolytes, nitrogenous wastes, hormones, and gases. The proteins in the plasma is responsible for clotting, deffense.
  3. What are the 2 categories of leukocytes found in the blood? How many kinds of leukocytes are there?
    There are 2 categories and Five leukocytes.

    • Granulocytes : 
    • - N.E.B.
    • - Neutrphils, Esinophils, Basophils

    • Angranulocytes
    • - Lymphocytes and Monocytes.
  4. What are the 3 major proteins of blood plaasma?
    Albumin (60% ) Responsible for osmotic pressure. Also transports lipids, hormones, calcium and other solutes.

    • Globuilins (36% ) :
    • - Alpha Globulins: Transpor hemoglobins released by dead erythrocytes, Transport copper, Promotes blodo clotting and transports lipids, vitamins and hormones.
    • - Beta Globulins: Transport iron, aid in destructio nof toxins and also transport lipids.
    • - Gamma Globulins: Antibodies that combat pathogens.

    Fibronogen ( 4% ): Becomes fibrin which is the major component of blood clotting
  5. What is Blood Viscosity?
    Viscosity is the resistance of fluid to flow. It is the thickness or stickiness of a fluid.
  6. What is Osmolarity?
    Osmolarity is the concetration fo all chemical particles found in the fluid part of the blood.

    Or amounnt of dissolved particles that cannot pass through the blood vessel walls such as chemical particles.
  7. Describe the production of blood.
    Hemopoisesis - process of producito nof blood and its formed elements.

    Hemopoetic tissues: Tissue that produce blood cells.

    Hemopoetic tisuse form in the human embryo.

    Then cell clusters called "blood islands" form by third week of human development producing Stem Cells giving rise to blood cells throughout fetal development.

    From infancy, red bone marrows  and lympathic organs produce  all seven kinds of formed elements ( 7 elements that make up the blood ) These formed elments are made due to the Hemopoeitic stem cells in the bone marrow.
  8. Describe Erythrocytes:
    Structure and Function and life ( erthythroposeis )
    Erytrhyocites are biconcave in shape and has a thick rim and a sunken center. Contains spectrin and actin that gives the cell resillience and durability.

    They pick up oxygen from lungs and deliver ir to tissue as well as picks up carbon dixoide from tissues and unload it into the lungs accomplished by the hemoglobin inside RBC's. 

    Erythytropoietesis: Production of RBC that takes 3-5 days. Kidneys release erthropoiten and attaches to the receptors in Erythryocyte Colony-forming units (ECFU ) transforming into erythroblasts. They then multiple and synthesize hemoglobin. After hemoglobi nis synthesized, the nucleus is dischaged from the cell and enters the blood stream. After a day or two, the cell matures and becomes an eryhtrocyte.
  9. Order leukocytes from most numerous to the least.
    • Neutrophils
    • → Lymphocytes → Monocytes → Eosinophils → Basophils

    Never Let Mama Ea Beans
  10. Which are leukocytes are nown as granulocytes?
    Neutrophils, Eosinophils, and basophils are known as granulocytes
  11. What do Neutrophils do?
    Destroy bacteria when bacterial infections arise.
  12. What do eosinophils do?
    Rises in response to allergies, aprassitic infections, collagen diseases, CNS and spleen diseases. They secrete chemiacls that weaken ordestroy large parasites such as hookworms, tapeworms and etc that aretoo big for any one WBC to phagocytize.
  13. What do basophils do?
    Secerete histamine to and heparin ( vasodialtor and anticoagulant ) to speedthe flow fo blood to an injured tissue and to inhinbit blodo clottingto promote mobility of WBC's in the area.
  14. Which WBC are agranulocyts?
    Lymphocites and Monocytes
  15. What do lymphocytse do?
    Second to neutrphoils in abundance and have several subclasses with different immune functons. They also come in Large medium and smallsizes.
  16. What do monocytes do?
    Largest WBC's which are two-three times in diameter of RBC. They risein inflammation and viral infections and go to work once they hitinto the blood stream and transofrm into macrophages. They destroydead or dying hosts and foreign cells, patgoenic chemicals,microorganisms and other foreign matter. On top of that they chop upand process foreign antigens and display fragements of them on thecell sruface to allert the immune system to the prescence ofapthogen.
  17. What determines a persons bloodtype?
    Their antigens ( Aggulitnogens )
  18. Whats the differnece between aggultinogens and agglutnins?
    • Agglutinogens are ANTIGENS
    • Agglutinins - Antibodies
  19. How do you determine soemones blood type?
    If per say you drop Antigen A  on someones blood. And it clots, It's an anti B because anti B is trying to fight off the anti A and vice versa.

    If you drop A and B in one, and nothing clots. It's AB.

    If you drop A and B on both and both clots, it's Type O.
  20. What is hemostasis?
    Cessation of bleeding with the help of paltelets.
  21. What are paltelets?
    Small fragments of marrow cells that secrete vasoconstrictors, stick together to make platelet plugs, and directly aid in clottign factors.

    They also internalize and destroy bacteria.
  22. What is the production of plaetelets know as ?
  23. What are the three mechanisms of hemostatic mechanism?
    • Vascular Spasms
    • Platelet Plug FOrmation
    • BLood Clotting
  24. What is vascular spasm?
    A prompt constriction of the broken vessel in order to protection against blood loss.
  25. What is platelet plug formation?
    Mass of paltetlets that hgrow spiny spseudopods adhere to the vessels to redeuce minor bleeding when vessels are broken.
  26. What is coagulation?
    The most effective dfeffense against bleeding. This is what clotting is and this is where plasma proteisn are converted into fibrin, which is at sicky protein that adheres to the walls of the vessel.

    As blood cells and paltelts arrive, they stick to the fibrin like insects on a spider web resulting in clotting to seal the break in blood vessel.
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Chapter 18 - Blood
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