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  1. IV. Napoleon’s Empire and the European Response
    • a.      When Napoleon was consul in 1799, France was at war with second European coalition of Russia, Great Britain and Austria
    •                                                               i.      Napoleon knew he needed pause
  2. IV. Napoleon’s Empire and the European Response
    • 1.      Peace he sought achieved at Amiens in march 1802 and left France with new frontiers and a number of client territories from the North Sea to the Adriatic
    • a.      Peace did not last because the British and French both regarded it as temporary and had little intention of adhering to its terms
  3. IV. Napoleon’s Empire and the European Response
    1803: War
    • a.      1803: War renewed with Britain, which was joined by Austria and Russia in Third Coalition
    •                                                               i.      Battle of Ulm in s. Germany in 1805, Napoleon surrounded an Austrian army, which quickly surrendered
    • 1.      Proceeded eastward from Ulm, Napoleon faced large Russian army under Tsar Alexander I and Austrian troops at Austerlitz
  4. IV. Napoleon’s Empire and the European Response
    Battle of Ulm results
    • a.      Combined allied forces outnumbered Napoleon’s forces, but the tsar chose poor terrain for the battle, and Napoleon beat the allied forces
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Austria sued for peace, and Tsar Alexander took remaining forces back to Russia
  5. IV. Napoleon’s Empire and the European Response
    a.      At first, Prussia refused to join Third Coalition, but after Napoleon began to reorganize the German states, Prussia reversed courseà Napoleon crushed Russian forces in two battles at Jena and Auerstadt in October 1806 and moved on to defeat the Russians, who decided to reenter the fray, at Eylau and Friedland in June 1807
  6. IV. Napoleon’s Empire and the European Response
    Napleon;s Grand Army
                                                                  i.      Napoleon’s Grand Army had defeated the Continental members of the coalition, giving him the opportunity to create a new European order
  7. Napoleon's Grand Empire
    What are the three parts
    • French empire
    • series of dependent states
    • allied states
  8. french empire
    a.      Inner core of the Grand empire consisting of enlarged France extending to Rhine and including western half of Italy north of Rome
  9. Series of dependent states
    a.      Spain, the Netherlands, the kingdom of Italy, the Swiss Republic, the Grand Duchy of Warsaw, and the Confederation of the Rhine
  10. Allied states
    • a.      Those defeated by Napoleon and forced to join his struggle against Britain
    • b.      Prussia, Austria, and Russia
  11. Internal Structure
    •                                                               i.      Although the internal structure varied outside its inner core, he thought he was leader as a whole
    •                                                             ii.      Within it, he demanded obedience, in part because he needed a common front against the British and because his growing egotism required obedience to his will
  12. Sought acceptance
    •                                                               i.      Sought acceptance everywhere of certain revolutionary principles, including legal equality, religious toleration, and economic freedom
    •                                                             ii.      In inner core and dependent states of his Grand Empire, Napoleon tried to destroy the old order
  13. Nobility and clergy
    • 1.      Nobility and clergy everywhere in these states most special privileges
    • a.      He decreed equality of opportunity with offices open to talent, equality before the law, and religious toleration
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      This spread of revolutionary principles was important in the development of liberal traditions in these countries
    • 1.      These reforms view Napoleon as last of enlightened absolutists
  14. The problem of Great Britain
    •                                                               i.      Napoleon hoped his Grand Empire would last for centuries, but collapsed rapidly
    •                                                             ii.      Two reasons why
    • 1.      Survival of Great Britain
    • 2.      Force of nationalism
  15. Survival of Great Britain
    • a.      Due to seapower, making it invulnerable to military attack
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Napoleon thought about invading England and collected ships for it, but couldn’t overcome the British navy’s decisive defeat of a combined French-Spanish’s fleet at Trafalgar in 1805
  16. Survival of Great Britain and Continental System
    • 1.      Turned to his Continental System to defeat Britain, which attempted to prevent British goods from reaching the European continent in order to weaken Britain economically and destroy its capacity to wage war= fail
    • a.      Allied states resented ever-tightening French economic hegemony; some began to cheat and others resisted, opening the door to British collaboration
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                               i.      New markets in e. Mediterranean and Latin America provided compensation for the British
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                             ii.      By 1810, British overseas exports were high
  17. Force of nationalism
    a.      Political creed arose during French Revolution in French people’s emphasis on brotherhood and solidarity against other peoples
  18. Force of nationalism
    cultural identity
    • a.      Involved unique cultural identity of people based on common language, religion, and national symbols
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Spirit of French nationalism made possible mass armies of revolutionary and Napoleonic eras
    • 1.      In spreading principles of French Revolution beyond France, Napoleon inavertadly brought about a spread of nationalism
  19. French aroused
    • a.      French aroused nationalism in two ways
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Making themselves hated oppressors, and thus arousing patriotism of others in opposition to French nationalism
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      Showing people of Europe what nationalism was and what a nation in arms could do
  20. Nationalism lesson
    • 1.      Lesson was not lost on other peoples and rulers
    • a.      Spanish uprising against Napoleon’s rule, aided by British support, kept a French force of 200,000 pinned down for years
  21. Nationalist movements
    1.      Nationalist movements arose in German states too, where intellectuals advocated cultural nationalism based on the unity of the German people
  22. Johann Gottlieb Fichte
    • a.      Philosopher Johann Gottlieb Fichte, who had at first welcomed the French Revolution for freeing the human spirit, soon became a proponent of a German national spirit radically different from that of France
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Although philosophical voices like Fichte’s did little to overthrow the French, they awakened a dream of German nationalism that would bear fruit later
  23. Prussia's feeling against Napoleon
    • 1.      In Prussia, feeling against Napoleon led to serious reform of the old order that had been so easily crushed by the French emperor
    • a.      Under direction of Baron Heinrich von Stein and later Prince Karl von Hardenberg, Prussia embarked on political and military reforms, including the abolition of serfdom, election of city councils, and creations of a larger standing army
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Prussia’s reforms, acting as response to Napoleon, enabled it to play important role in European affairs
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