group 1a: lithium (Li), Sodium (Na), Potassium (K), Rubidium (Rb), Cesium (Cs). Often soft silvery metals, react rapidly w/ water to form products that are basic [alkaline].
alkaline earth metals
group 2a: berillium (Be), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), radium (Ra). These are lustrous silvery metals but are less reactive than group 1a.
1 cm = 0.01m
characteristics that involve a change in chemical makeup
study of composition, properties, and transformations of matter
a relationship between two units
1 cubic centimeter (cc) = .001 dm cubed = 10^-6 m cubed= 1 mL
1 dm^3 is = to 1 L
the mass of an object divided by its volume. density=mass (g)/ volume (mL or cm) cubed
a quantity described in one unit is converted into an equivelant quality w/ a differnt unit by using a conversion factor to express the relationship between the units.
ex. 1m/39.37inches=39.37 inches/1m=1
the fundamental substance that cannot be chemicaly changed or broken down into anything simpler
values that depend on the sample size
ex. an ice cube is muchsmaller than an iceburg
G= 10^9 power
(h) 10^2 or 100
(da) 10^1 or 10
(c) 10^-2 = 0.01
(greek m) 10^-6
vertical colums in periodic table
group 7a: florine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I)- these are colorful corrosive nonmetals. they are found in nature only, combined w/ otehr elements. group name is derived from the greek word (hals) meaning salt.
innertransition metal group
the 14 groups shown separetely at the bottom the table.
have values that do not depend on amount of sample. ex. temperature and melting point.
(K) 273 degrees K= 0 degrees C =32 degrees F.
main group (periodic table)
the 2 larger groups on left and 6 larger groups on right
the amount of matter in an object
a catchall term used to describe anything w/ a physical presence; anything you can touch, taste or smell
largest category of elements, found on left side of periodic table, bounded on the right by a zigzag line running from Boron (B) to Astatine (At). metals are characterized by their apperance, have silvery shine, malleable rather than brittle, can be twisted and drawen into wire, and are good conductors of heat and electricity.
group 8a: Helium (He), Neon (Ne), Argon (Ar), Krypton (Kr), Xenon (Xe), Radon (Rn). they are colorless gasses w/ low chemical activity * Helium and Neon won't combine w/ other elements. * Ar, Kr, and Xe combine w/ very few elements
found on right side of periodic table, except for Hydrogen. 11 of 17 are gases. 1 is a liquid (bromine). 5 are solids at room temp (Carbon, Phosphorus, sulfur, Selenium, and Iodine). Not silvery, several are brigtly colored, they are brittle (not maleable), and they are poor conductors of heat and electricity.
seven horizontal rows
the grid of elements divided into seven horizontal rows (called periods) and 18 colums (called groups).
characteristics that do not involve a change in a sample's chemical makeup. ex. color, size
how well a # of independent measurements agree w/ one another.
any characteristic that can be used to decribe or identify matter
properties are intermediate between those of their metalllic andnon-metallic neighbors. Most are silvery in appearance and all are solid at room temp. They are brittle and poor conductors of heat and electricity
french systeme internationale d'unites (metric system) [7 fundamental units.]
7 fundamental SI units
mass kilogram kg
length meter m
temperature (T) Kelvin K
amount of substance Mole mol (n)
time (t) second s
electircal current Ampere (Amp)
luminous intensity candela (cd)
total # of didgits recorded for measurement. 4 rules.
4 Sig Fig rules
1) all non-zero #s are significant
2) embedded zeros are significant
3) (leading) zeros at the beginning of a number are not significant
4) terminal are significant if an explicit decimal point is written. [ ex. 100. = 3 sig fis.]
ARE Not significant if there is no decimal point. ex. 100 = 1 sig fig.
consistent explanations of a particular hypothesis
transition metal group
the ten smaller groups in the middle of the table [groups 3b-2b]. colums 3-12.
3b, 4b, 5b, 6b, 7b, 8b, 8b, 8b, 1b,2b.
measuring and significant figures
1) report to the # of places the device allows
2) estimate and report one additional place to the right
1inch is = to______cm
1 foot is = to _____ in
1 mile =_____yards
1 in= 2.54 cm
1 foot = 12 in
1 yard = 3ft
1 mile= 5,280ft
1 mile = 1,760 yards
1 lb= _____g
1 lb= 16-oz
1 ton= 2,000 lbs
freezing point of water
boiling point of water
formula for converting C to F
degrees C = (degrees F -32) X 5/9ths
1 liter = __quarts
1 liter = 1.057 qts.
volume formulas (2)
1) volume= length X width X heigth and (length X width = area). Cubes and redtangles.
2) volume = (area X heigth) and volume = (pi R^2) X heigth. Cylinders. [cm^3=1 mL=1 cc).
density X volume
a point of comparison. water is the standard
qualifications for a standard
1) MUST BE PLENTIFUL
2) must be easily accessible
3) identical properties over a wide range of temp.
density is temp. dependent
decreas temp. = increase in density and solid will sink in liquid
calculations and reporting sig figs. 2 rules (adding and subtracting rule) (multiplicaiton and divison rule)
1) report answer to match# of sig. figs. to the multiplicand w/ the fewest sig. figs. (multiplication and division)
2) report final answer to match the # of sig. figs in the add-in w/ fewest places to right.
* answer should always reflect the least certain #