Sociology MT

  1. Empirical evidence
    evidence gathered by direct experience/observation with scientific method
  2. reliability
    how likely research results are to be replicated if study is reproduced (what happens to one will happen to all)
  3. Validity
    how well the study measures what it is designed to measure. extent the data collected gives true picture of social situation being studied
  4. Literary review
    background research done before experiment as a review of any existing similar or elated studies (prevent duplications and can further focus or enrich own research)
  5. Hypothesis
    assumption about how 2 or more variables are related. Statement about variable relationship and often predicts how 1 HB will influence another
  6. Independent variable
    something that causes change.  It is controlled
  7. Dependent variable
    effect or thing that is changed
  8. Hawthorne effect
    when people change their behavior because they know they are being watched as part of study. Sometimes it is unavoidable when they have to make the purpose of the study known
  9. Survey
    collects data from subjects who respond to series of questions about behaviors and opinions (often in questionnaire form).
  10. Population
    people who are the focus of the study
  11. Sample
    small portion of the population that is a manageable number of subjects who represent the population
  12. Random Sample
    every person in population has the same chance of being chosen for the study
  13. Quantitative data
    research collected in numerical form that can be counted and measured.  (sometimes they can use short responses)
  14. Qualitative data
    results that are subjective, in-depth, and often based on what is seen in natural setting.  (harder to organize and tabulate and unmeasurable)
  15. Interview
    One on One conversation tween researcher and subject.  (very rich and valid)
  16. Field research
    gathering primary data from natural environment without lab experiment or survey. Step into environments to observe, participate, and experience the worlds
  17. Primary data
    first hand data and information collected by the researcher
  18. Correlation
    not cause and effect.  refers to regular relationship tween variables
  19. Participant observation
    researchers join people and participate in group's routine activities for purpose of observing them within context (mostly qualitative data)
  20. Ethnography
    extended observation of social perspective and cultural values of entire social setting.  (objective observation)
Card Set
Sociology MT
sociology midterm