1. Carbonic Anhydrase Mechanism of Action
    block the action of carbonic anhydrase
  2. Carbonic anhydrase Indications
    • glaucoma, edema, epilepsy, high-altitude sickness
    • open-angle glaucoma, intraocular pressure
  3. Carbonic anhydrase Contraindications
    hyponatremia, hypokalemia, severe renal and hepatic dysfunction, adrenal gland insufficiency, and cirrhosis
  4. Carbonic anhydrase adverse effects
    • metabolic abnormalities and hypokalemia
    • metabolic acidosis, anorexia, hematuria, photosensitivity, melena, drowsiness, paresthesias, urticaria
  5. Loop diuretics Mechanism of action
    block chloride and sodium reabsorption of ascending limp of the loop of Henle
  6. Loop diuretics Indications
    • manage edema associated with heart failure and renal or hepatic disease
    • hypertension, hypercalcemia
  7. Loop diuretics contraindications
    hepatic coma, severe electrolyte loss
  8. Loop Diuretics Adverse Effects
    • CNS: dizziness, headache, tinnitus, blurred vision
    • GI: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea
    • Hematologic: hypokalemia, hyperglycemia, hyperuricemia
  9. Osmotic Diuretics mechanism of action
    nonabsorbable producing osmotic effect
  10. Osmotic diuretics Indications
    • acute renal failure, promote excretion of toxic substances, reduce intracranial pressure, treat cerebral edema
    • early oliguric phase of ARF
  11. Osmotic diuretics Contraindications
    severe renal disease, pulmonary edema, active intracranial bleeding
  12. Osmotic diuretics adverse effects
    • convulsions, thrombophlebitis, pulmonary congestion
    • headaches, chest pains, tachycardia, blurred vision, chills, fever
  13. Potassium-Sparing Diuretics Mechanism of Action
    • bind to aldosterone receptors and inhibit their action
    • ~interferes with sodium-potassium exchange
  14. Potassium-Sparing Diuretics Contraindications
    hyperkalemia, severe renal failure, anuria
  15. Potassium-Sparing Diuretics Adverse Effects
    • CNS: dizziness, headache
    • GI: cramps, vomiting, diarrhea
    • Other: urinary frequency, weakness, hyperkalemia
  16. Thiazides and Thiazide-like Diuretics Mechanism of Action
    inhibit the resorption of sodium, potassium, and chloride- distal convoluted tubule
  17. Thiazide and Thiazide-like Diuretics  Indications
    • edema, idiopathic hypercalciuria, diabetes insipidus, hypertension¬†
    • heart failure due to diastolic dysfunction
    • edema related to HF, hepatic cirrhosis, corticosteroid or estrogen therapy
  18. Thiazide and Thiazide-like Diuretics Contraindications
    • hepatic coma, anuria, severe renal failure
    • creatinine clearance less than 50 mL/min
  19. thiazide and thiazide-like diuretics adverse effects
    • electrolyte and metabolic disturbances
    • CNS: dizziness, headache, blurred vision, paresthesias, decreased libido
    • GI: anorexia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea
    • GU: impotence
    • Integumentary: urticaria, photosensitivity
Card Set
Pharm test 3