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  1. Benign
  2. Malignant
  3. suffix -oma
    used to indicate a benign tumor
  4. carcinoma and sarcoma are used to describe ____
    malignant tumor
  5. Hypertrophy
    growth that causes tissue to increase in size by enlarging
  6. Hyperplasia
    growth that causes tissue to increase in size by increasing the number of cells
  7. What causes cells to have a tight adherence?
    fibronectin or being surrounded with fibrous connective tissue
  8. ______ is the loss of specific appearance of parent cells.
    anaplasia - cancer cells become small & rounded
  9. Common metastasis for lung cancer
    • *brain
    • bone
    • liver
    • lymph nodes
    • pancreas
  10. Common sites of metastasis for Breast cancer
    • *bone
    • *lung
    • liver
    • brain
  11. Stage T1, NO, MO
    • T1 - Increasing size and/or local extent of the primary tumor
    • NO - no regional lymph node metastasis
    • MO - no distant metastasis
  12. _______ is a selective estrogen receptor
    modulator (SERM).  These drugs block the
    effect of estrogen in women who have estrogen receptor positive breast cancer
    because it relies on estrogen to grow. 
    SERMS are also used as chemoprevention in women at high risk for breast
    cancer and in women with advanced breast cancer.
    • Tamoxifen       
    • It is recommended to be taken for 5 years to achieve the best benefit for risk reduction.        
    • Common side effects:  hot flashes & weight gain
  13. An abnormal accumulation of protein fluid in the subq tissue of the affected limb after a mastectomy is called _______.
    • Lymphedema
    • Avoid having BP taken, injections, or blood draws on the effected side
  14. Best diagnostic test for adinocarcinoma of the lung.
    PET – positron emission tomography scanning is becoming the most thorough way to locate metastases
  15. Normal WBC count?  What med would be given for low count?
    • Normal 5,000-10,000
    • Neupogen (filastrim) 5mcg/kg daily Subcut
  16. Normal RBC count?  Medication given for low count?
    • Normal 4.7-6.1
    • Epogen (procrit) - subcut 150 units/kg 3x/week
  17. CEA
    CEA - carcinoembryonic antigen.  A nonspecific test, increased values indicate possible colorectal, stomach, or pancreatic cancer.

    CA-125  cancer antigen test that measure presence of damaged endometrial & uterine tissue in the blood.  Not used for screening.

    These two tests are used as a baseline. Levels after treatment are compared to determine effectiveness.
  18. Neutropenia
    Low neutrophil (WBC) count
  19. Extravasation
    Occures when cancer drugs leak into the surrounding tissues (infiltration)
  20. Symptoms of a brain tumor
    Anorexia, headaches & vomiting not related to eating, worse in morning.
  21. Most common DI procedure for dx brain tumor?
    CT scan

    • Symptoms of brain tumor
    • headache in morning, ICP is decreased
    • visual symptoms
    • seizure
    • N&V
  22. Adenocarcinoma is cancer of what tissue?
    • Lung
    • it doubles in 20-40 weeks
    • commonly metastasis to brain, liver, lymph nodes, and pancreas
  23. What tests are done to determine if adenocarcinoma has metastasized?
    • PET - positron emission tomography
    • CXR
    • MRI
    • CT
  24. Side effects of radiation
    • Taste alterations - aversion to red meat
    • Skin changes - dry, thin
    • Hair loss - 
    • Fatigue
  25. What type of cancer is multiple myeloma?
    • Hematologic cancer, or cancer of the blood
    • causes hypercalcemia - cancer in bone causes release of calcium into the blood stream
    • Treatment - oral hydration to reduce Ca levels & reduce symptoms.  IV 0.9% NS used when parenteral hydration is needed.
  26. Meds for pts receiving radiation treatment?
    • Dexamethasone - Reduce CINV
    • Hydrocodone - 5mg for pain PO
    • Ondansetron (Zofran) - 8 mg IV, prevents CINV
    • Zolpidiem (Ambien) - 5 mg PO for sleep
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