Oceanography - Chapters 5-8

  1. Acid
    • A substance that releases hydrogen ions in solution.
    • The resulting solution is said to be acidic.
  2. Alkaline
    • A substance that releases hydroxide ions in a solution.
    • Also called a basic or base.
  3. Boiling Point
    • aka Condensation Point
    • Pure Water: 100°C or 212°F
  4. Brackish
    Low-salinity water caused by the mixing of freshwater and saltwater
  5. Buffering
    • Process in which chemical reactions involving carbonate minimize changes in the pH of the ocean.
    • Protects the ocean from getting too acidic or too basic.
  6. Calorie
    The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree centigrade.
  7. Chlorinity
    The weight of the chloride ion in a water sample
  8. Cohesion
    • Occurs when water molecules stick together
    • The cohesive properties of water cause it to "bead up" on a waxed surface.
    • Also gives water it's surface tension.
  9. Condensation Point
    • For pure water: 100°C or 212°F
    • Same as boiling point
  10. Condensation
    Water from vapor to liquid
  11. Continental Effect
    • A condition of continentiality
    • Refers to areas less affected by the sea and therefore having a greater range of temperature differences (both daily and yearly)
  12. Covalent Bond
    • (in a water molecule) are due to the sharing of electrons between oxygen and each hydrogen atom.
    • They are relatively strong chemical bonds, so a lot of energy is needed to break them.
  13. Deep Water
    • Dense and Cold
    • Extends from below the thermocline/pycnocline to the deep ocean floor
  14. Desalination
    • Salt removal from sea water
    • Can provide freshwater for business, home, and agricultural use
    • Methods: Distillation; Electrolysis; Reverse Osmosis; Freeze Separation
  15. Dipolar
    • Having two poles.
    • The water molecule possesses a polarity of electrical charge with one pole being more positive and the other more negative in electrical charge.
  16. Distillation
    • Process in which seawater is boiled and the resulting water vapor is passed through a cooling condenser where it condenses and is collected as freshwater
    • Very efficient
    • Expensive
  17. Electrolysis
    • Method in which two volumes of fresh water (one w/ + electrode, other with - electrode) are placed on either side of a volume of seawater. The seawater is separated from each of the freshwater reservoirs by semipermeable membranes. These membranes are permeable to salt ions, not water molecules.
    • In time, enough ions are removed through the membranes to convert the seawater to freshwater
    • Downside: Requires large amount of energy
  18. Electron
  19. Electrostatic Attraction
    Produces an ionic bond.
  20. Evaporation
    Liquid to gas
  21. Freeze Separation
    • A process in which seawater selectively excludes dissolved substances as it freezes.
    • Result: The salinity of sea ice (once melted) is typically 70% lower than seawater
    • Downside: Requires large amount of energy
  22. Freezing Point
    • For pure water: 0°C or 32°F
    • Same as melting point
  23. Halocline
    • A layer of water in which a high rate of change is salinity in the vertical dimension is present
    • Separate layers of different salinity in the ocean
  24. Heat
    • Proportional to the energy level of moving molecules and thus is the total internal energy transferred from one body to another.
    • May be generated by: Combustion, Other Chemical Reactions, Friction, or Radioactivity
    • May be transferred by: Conduction, Convention, or Radiation
  25. Heat Capacity
    • The amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of a substance by 1 degree centigrade
    • High Heat Capacity: Absorb (or lose) large quantities of heat with only small change in temperature
    • Lower Heat Capacity: Change temperature rapidly when heat is applied (ex - oil or metals)
  26. Hydrogen Bond
    • These bonds between water molecules are much weaker than the covalent bonds that hold individual water molecules together.
    • Weaker Hydrogen Bonds = Form between adjacent water molecules
    • Stronger Covalent Bonds = Occur within water molecules
  27. Hydrologic Cycle
    • The cycle of water exchange among the atmosphere, land, and ocean through the processes of evaporation, precipitation, runoff, and subsurface percolation.
    • aka the water cycle
  28. Hypersaline
    • Typical of seas and inland bodies of water that experience high evaporation rates and limited open-ocean circulation
    • Some of the most hypersaline water in the world is found in inland lakes that are often called seas because they are so salty
  29. Ion
    In some cases, an atom will lose or gain one or more electrons and thus have an overall electrical charge.
  30. Ionic Bond
    A chemical bond formed by electrical attraction.
  31. Isopycnal
    Of the same density
  32. Isothermal
    • Of the same temperature
    • Water column in high latitudes
  33. Kinetic Energy
    • Energy of motion
    • Increases as the mass/speed of the object in motion increases
  34. Latent Heat of Condensation
    • When water vapor is cooled sufficiently, it releases this into the surrounding air.
    • Large Scale: The heat released is sufficient to power large thunderstorms and even hurricanes
    • Identical to the LH of Vaporization
  35. Latent Heat of Evaporation
    • 585 calories per gram for water
    • More heat is required (compared to vaporization) because my hydrogen bonds must be broken
  36. Latent Heat of Freezing
    • The amount of heat released when water freezes is the same amount that was absorbed when the water was melted in the first place
    • Identical to the latent heat of melting
  37. Latent Heat of Melting
    • The energy needed to break the intermolecular bonds that hold water molecules rigidly in place in ice crystals
    • The temperature remains unchanged until most of the bonds are broken and the mixture of ice and water has changed completely to 1 gram of water
  38. Latent Heat of Vaporization
    • 540 calories per gram for water
    • The amount of heat that must be added to 1 gram of a substance at its boiling point to break the intermolecular bonds and complete the change of state from liquid to vapor
    • Identical to LH of Condensation
  39. Marine Effect
    • Describes locations that experience the moderating influences of the ocean
    • Usually along coastlines or islands
  40. Melting Point
    • For pure water: 0°C or 32°F
    • Same as freezing point
  41. Mixed Surface Layer
    • Occurs above a strong permanent thermocline
    • The water is uniform because it is well mixed by surface currents, waves, and tides
  42. Molecule
    • A group of two or more atoms held together by mutually shared electrons.
    • The smallest form of a substance that can exist yet still retain the original properties of that substance.
    • When atoms combine with other atoms to form molecules, they share or trade electrons and establish chemical bonds.
  43. Neutron
  44. Nucleus
    • Composed of protons and neutrons which are bound together by strong forces.
    • Proton   = +
    • Neutron = no charge
    • Surrounding the nucleus are electrons (-)
  45. pH Scale
    • A measure of the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution
    • Values range from 0 (strongly acidic) to 14 (strongly alkaline/basic)
    • The pH of a neutral solution (pure water) is 7.0
  46. Polarity
  47. Potential Energy
    The energy of a particle or system of particles derived from position, or condition, rather than motion.
  48. Precipitation
    • Discharge of water in the form of rain, snow, hail, or sleet
    • Mostly rain and snow
  49. Principle of Constant Proportions
    States that the major dissolved constituents responsible for the salinity of seawater occur nearly everywhere in the ocean in the exact same proportions, independent of salinity.
  50. Proton
  51. Pycnocline
    A layer of water in which a high rate of change in density in the vertical dimension is present.
  52. Residence Time
    • The average length of time that a substance resides in the ocean.
    • Long Residence Times: Leads to higher concentrations of substance
  53. Reverse Osmosis
    • Potential for large-scale use
    • Process in which water on the salty side is highly pressurized to drive water molecules (but not salt and other impurities) through the membrane to the freshwater side
    • Problem: Membranes are flimsy, become clogged, and must be replaced frquently
    • At least 30 countries use this method
  54. Runoff
  55. Salinity
    • The total amount of solid material dissolved in water
    • Including: Dissolved gases
    • Excluding: Dissolved organic substances; Fine particles being held in suspension (turbidity); Solid material in contact with water
    • The ratio of the mass of dissolved substances to the mass of the water sample
    • Typically: 3.5% and 200 times that of freshwater
  56. Salinometer
    Oceanography instrument used to measure seawater salinity
  57. Solar Distillation
    • aka Solar Humidification
    • Does not require supplemental heating and has been used successfully in small-scale
    • Similar to distillation, however, the water is heated by direct sunlight
    • Problem: Hard to get sunlight energy focused in one area
  58. Solar Humidification
    • aka Solar Distillation
    • Does not require supplemental heating and has been used successfully in small-scale
    • Similar to distillation, however, the water is heated by direct sunlight
    • Problem: Hard to get sunlight energy focused in one area
  59. Specific Heat
    • aka Specific Heat Capacity
    • Heat capacity per unit mass of body
    • Used to more directly compare the heat capacity of substances
    • Pure water: High specific heat capacity at 1 calorie per gram
  60. Surface Tension
    • Results from the formation of hydrogen bonds between the outermost layer of water molecules and the underlying molecules.
    • Water's ability to form hydrogen bonds causes it to have the highest surface tension of any liquid except the element mercury
  61. Thermal Contraction
    • Shrinkage cause by cold temperatures
    • Occurs in water, but only to a certain point
    • Water stops contracting and expands below 39°F (4°C).
    • The result: Ice is less dense then water (why it floats)
  62. Thermocline
    A layer of water beneath the mixed layer in which rapid change in temperature can be measured in the vertical dimension.
  63. Thermostatic Effect
    The properties that act to moderate changes in temperature, which in turn affect Earth's climate
  64. Upper Water
    • A low density layer consisting of the thermocline and pynocline
    • Well developed throughout the low and middle latitudes
  65. Van der Waals Force
    Relatively weak interactions that become significant only when molecules are very close together as in the solid and liquid states (but not gaseous).
  66. Water Vapor
    • Water in its gaseous state
    • Point where water molecules no longer interact with one another except during random collisions.
    • Flow very freely
  67. Air Mass & Four Types
    • Large volumes of air that have a definite area of origin and distinctive characteristics
    • Continental: Originate over land; Dryer
    • Maritime: Originate over sea; Moist
    • Polar/Arctic: Colder
    • Tropical: Warm
  68. Albedo
    • The percentage of incident radiation that is reflected back to space
    • Average: 30%
    • Ice has higher [albedo] than soil/vegetation
  69. Antarctic Circle
    • 66.5°S Latitude
    • At certain times of the year do not experience daily cycles of daylight and darkness
  70. Anticyclonic Flow
    The flow of air around a region of high pressure clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere
  71. Arctic Circle
    • 66.5°N Latitude
    • At certain times of the year do not experience daily cycles of daylight and darkness
  72. Autumnal Equinox
    • Occurs on or about September 23
    • The Sun is directly overhead along the equator again
    • In Northern Hemisphere: Autumnal Equinox = Fall Equinox
  73. Climate
    Long-term average of weather
  74. Cold Front
    • The contact between a cold air mass moving into an area occupied by warm air
    • Cold --> Warm
  75. Convection Cell
    Composed of the rising and sinking air moving in circular fashion
  76. Coriolis Effect
    • Changes the intended path of a body
    • Causes moving objects on Earth to follow curved paths
    • Northern Hemisphere: Path to the right
    • Southern Hemisphere: Path to the left
    • An effect as a result of Earth's rotation toward the east
    • Image Upload 1
  77. Cyclone
    • Huge rotating masses of low pressure
    • Characterized by strong winds and torrential rain
    • Largest storm systems on Earth
    • Not associated with fronts
    • aka: Tropical Cyclone, Typhoons, Hurricanes
  78. Cyclonic Flow
    The flow of air around a region of low pressure counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere
  79. Declination
    Sun's angular distance from the equatorial plane
  80. Doldrums
    The boundary between the two trade wind belts along the equator
  81. Ecliptic
    The plane traced by Earth's orbit
  82. Equatorial Region
    • Spans the Equator
    • Gets an abundance of solar radiation
    • Major Air Movement: Upward - Because heated air masses
    • Called doldrums
  83. Equatorial Low
    A band of low atmospheric pressure that encircles the globe along the equator
  84. Eye of the Hurricane
    The circular low-pressure area of relative calm at the center of a hurricane
  85. Ferrel Cell
    The large atmospheric circulation cell that occurs between 30° and 60° Latitude in each hemisphere
  86. Hadley Cell
    The large atmospheric circulation cell that occurs between the equator and 30° Latitude in each hemisphere
  87. Horse Latitudes
    • The boundary between the trade winds and the prevailing westerlies (centered at 30°N/S latitude)
    • High Atmospheric Pressure
    • Clear, Dry, and Fair Conditions
    • Known for surface winds that are light and variable
    • Associated with the subtropical high pressure
  88. Hurricane
    • Huge rotating masses of low pressure
    • Characterized by strong winds and torrential rain
    • Last 5-10 days
    • Largest storm systems on Earth
    • Not associated with fronts
    • aka: Tropical Cyclone, Typhoons, Cyclones
  89. Ice Floe
    • A piece of floating ice other than fast ice or icebergs
    • May range in maximum horizontal dimension from about 20cm-1km/8inch-0.6m
    • Formed by pancake ice combining
  90. Icebergs
    • Originate by breaking off (calving) from glaciers that originate on land
    • Found at sea
  91. Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ)
    • The global zone where northeast trade winds and southeast trade winds converge
    • Occurs close to the equator
    • Average: 5°N latitude in Pacific & Atlantic Oceans / 7°S latitude in Indian Ocean
  92. Jet Stream
    • A narrow, fast-moving, easterly flowing air mass
    • Exists above the middle latitudes, just below the top of the troposphere
    • Centered at 10km/6m
    • Usually flows a wavy path
    • May cause: Unusual weather (by steering a polar air mass  far to the south or a tropical air mass far to the north)
  93. Land Breeze
    • The seaward flow of air from the land
    • Caused by differential cooling of Earth's surface
    • Land → Sea
  94. Northeast Trade Winds
    • Curve to the right (Coriolis Effect)
    • Blow Northeast to Southwest
  95. Pancake Ice
    • Circular pieces of newly formed sea ice from 0.3-3 meters/1-10 feet in diameter that form in the early fall in polar regions
    • Combines to form ice floes
  96. Polar Regions
    • Surface Temperature: At or near freezing
    • Covered with ice throughout most of the year
    • Includes: Arctic Ocean and the ocean adjacent to Antarctica
    • No sunlight during winter months
    • Constant daylight during summer months
  97. Polar Cell
    The large atmospheric circulation cell that occurs between 60° and 90° Latitude in each hemisphere
  98. Polar Easterly Wind Belt
    • Global wind belt that moves away from the polar regions toward the polar front at about 60°N/S latitude in each hemisphere
    • Northern Hemisphere: Northeasterly Direction
    • Southern Hemisphere: Southeasterly Direction
  99. Polar Front
    • Boundary between the prevailing westerlies and the polar easterlies at 60°N/S latitude
    • "Battleground" for different air masses
    • Cloudy Conditions and Precipitation
  100. Polar High
    High-pressure regions created by descending air at the poles
  101. Prevailing Westerly Wind Belt
    • Global wind belt that moves from the subtropical high-pressure belts at about 30°N/S latitude toward the polar front at about 60°N/S latitude
    • Northern Hemisphere: Southwesterly direction
    • Southern Hemisphere: Northwesterly direction
  102. Saffir-Simpson Scale
    • ...of Hurrican Intensity
    • Divides tropical cyclones into categories based on wind speed and damage
    • Category: 1-5
  103. Sea Breeze
    • The landward flow of air from the sea
    • Caused by differential heating of Earth's surface
    • Sea → Land
  104. Sea Ice
    • Masses of frozen sea water
    • Permanent/Nearly Permanent ice cover over sea surface
    • Found: (throughout the year) Margin of Antarctica, within the Arctic Ocean, and in the extreme high-latitude region of the North Atlantic Ocean
    • Forming Rate: Closely tied to temperature conditions
    • Temperature ↓ = Large Quantities in short period of time
  105. Shelf Ice
    • Thick floating sheets of ice formed by the edge of glaciers
    • Breaks off and produces cast plate-like icebergs
    • ^ Iceberg Characteristics: flat tops, 90% of their mass is below the waterline
  106. Southeast Trade Winds
    • Curve to the left (Coriolis Effect)
    • Blow Southeast to Northwest
  107. Storm
    Atmospheric disturbances characterized by strong winds, precipitation, and often thunder and lightning
  108. Storm Surge
    • A rise above normal water level resulting from wind stress and reduced atmospheric pressure during storms
    • Consequences: More severe if occurring with high tide
    • Responsible for 90% of deaths associated with Hurricanes
  109. Subpolar Regions
    • Extensive Precipitation (due to subpolar low)
    • Sea Ice covers the subpolar ocean in winter, but melts away in summer
    • Icebergs common
    • Surface Temperature: Rarely exceeds 5°C/41°F in summer months
  110. Subpolar Low
    • A global belt of low atmospheric pressure located at about 60° N/S latitude
    • Associated with vertical flow of low-density air upward and much precipitation
  111. Subtropical Regions
    Characteristics: Little precipitation; High Rate of Evaporation; Highest surface salinities in the open ocean; Weak winds; Sluggish Currents; Strong boundary currents flow N/S
  112. Subtropical High
    High-pressure zones created by the descending air at about 30°N and S latitude
  113. Summer Solstice
    • Occurs on or about June 21
    • The Sun reaches its most northerly point in the sky, directly overhead along the Tropic of Cancer (23.5°N Latitude)
    • On Earth: Sun reaches Northernmost/Southernmost point and appears to pause before beginning the next 6-month cycle
  114. Temperate Regions
    • Aka: Middle latitudes or Midlatitudes
    • Characteristics: Strong westerly winds (the prevailing westerlies)

    • Northern Hemisphere: Southwest
    • Southern Hemisphere: Northwest
  115. Trade Winds
    • Masses of air that move across Earth's surface from the subtropical high-pressure belts toward the equatorial low-pressure belt
    • No Earth Rotation: North-South Direction
  116. Tropic of Cancer
    23.5°N Latitude
  117. Tropic of Capricorn
    23.5°S Latitude
  118. Tropical Regions
    • Extend North or South of the equatorial regions up to the Tropic of Cancer/Capricorn
    • Characteristics: Strong trade winds

    • Northern Hemisphere: Northeast Winds
    • Southern Hemisphere: Southeast Winds
  119. Tropical Cyclone
    • Huge rotating masses of low pressure
    • Characterized by strong winds and torrential rain
    • Largest storm systems on Earth
    • Not associated with fronts
    • North/South American = Hurricans
    • Western North Pacific Ocean = Typhoons
    • Indian Ocean = Cyclones
  120. Tropics
    • Region between Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn
    • Location that receives much greater annual radiation than polar areas
  121. Troposphere
    • The lowermost portion of the atmosphere
    • Extends from the surface to about 12km/7m
    • Place where all weather is produced
    • ↑ Altitude = ↓ Temperature
  122. Typhoon
    • Huge rotating masses of low pressure
    • Characterized by strong winds and torrential rain
    • Largest storm systems on Earth
    • Not associated with fronts
    • aka: Tropical Cyclone, Hurricanes, Cyclones
  123. Vernal Equinox
    • Occurs on or about March 21
    • The Sun is directly overhead along the equator
    • All places in the world experience equal lengths of night and day
    • In Northern Hemisphere: Vernal Equinox = Spring Equinox
  124. Warm Front
    • The contact between a warm air mass moving into an area occupied by cold air
    • Warm --> Cold
  125. Weather
    The conditions of the atmosphere at a given time and place
  126. Wind
    Air always moves from high-pressure regions toward low-pressure regions
  127. Winter Solstice
    • Occurs on or about December 22
    • The Sun is directly overhead along the Tropic of Capricorn (23.5°S Latitude)
    • Southern Hemisphere: Seasons reversed (at winter solstice, summer occurs)
  128. Antarctic Bottom Water
    • Densest water in open ocean
    • Slowly sinks beneath the surface
    • Spreads into all the world's ocean basins, eventually returning to the surface perhaps 1000 years later
  129. Antarctic Circumpolar Current
    • ♡ Main current in Antarctic waters
    • ♡ AKA: West Wind Drift, Penguin Gyre
    • ♡ Encircles Antarctica
    • ♡ Flows west to east at approximately 50°S latitude but varies (40-65°)
    • ♡ The only current that completely circumscribes Earth and is allowed to do so because of the lack of land at high southern latitudes
  130. Antarctic Convergence
    • ♡ AKA: Antarctic Polar Front
    • ♡ Location where colder, denser, Antarctic water converge with (and sink sharply below) warmer, less dense sub-Antarctic waters at about 50°S latitude
    • ♡Marks the northernmost boundary of the Southern or Antarctic Ocean
  131. Antarctic Divergence
    • A divergence of currents
    • Has an abundance of marine life in the Southern Hemisphere summer because of the mixing of these two currents, which supplies nutrient-rich water to the surface through upwelling
  132. Antarctic Intermediate Water Mass
    • One of the world's most poorly studied water masses
    • Deep-water mass formed from the sinking at the Antarctic Convergence
  133. Antilles Current
    Passes along the Atlantic side of the West Indies
  134. Arctic Convergence
    A zone of converging  currents similar to the Antarctic Convergence but located in the Arctic
  135. Argo
    • A global array of free-drifting profiling floats
    • Movement: vertical
    • Measures: the temperature, salinity, and other water characteristics of the upper 2000meters/6600feet of the ocean
  136. California Current
    Flows south along the coast of California
  137. Caribbean Current
    Passes through the Yucatán Channel into the Gulf of Mexico
  138. Coastal Downwelling
    • Occasion when the water stacks up along the shoreline and has nowhere to go but down
    • Areas with low productivity and a lack of marine life
  139. Coastal Upwelling
    Upwelling as a result of windblown surface water moving offshore

    Image Upload 2
  140. Cold-core Ring
    • Cold nearshore water that spins off to the south of the Gulf Stream
    • Rotates Counterclockwise
    • Surrounded by warmer water
    • Consists of cone-shaped masses of cold water
    • Moves southwest
  141. Conveyer-Belt Circulation
    • An integrate model combining deep thermohaline circulation and surface currents
    • The overall circulation pattern resembles a large conveyer belt

    Image Upload 3
  142. Deep Current
    • Circulation: Density-Driven
    • Water Movement: Vertical
    • Accounts for the thorough mixing of the deep masses of ocean water
    • Dense water sinks and spreads slowly
  143. Downwelling
    • ♡ Vertical movement of surface water to deeper parts of the ocean
    • ♡ Associated with much lower amount of surface productivity
    • ♡ Carries necessary dissolved oxygen to those organisms living on the deep-sea floor

    Image Upload 4
  144. East Australian Current (EAC)
    • Image Upload 5
  145. East Wind Drift
    • ♡ A surface current propelled by the polar easterlies
    • ♡ As the East Wind Drift and the Antarctic Circumpolar Current flow around Antarctica in opposite directions, they create a surface divergence
  146. Eastern Boundary Current
    Equatorward-flowing cold drifts of water on the eastern side of all subtropical gyres
  147. Ekman Spiral
    • Describes the speed and direction of flow of surface waters at various depths
    • Assumes a uniform column of water is set in motion by wind blowing across its surface
    • B/C of Coriolis Effect, surface water actually moves in a direction 45° to the right of the wind (in NH)
    • As surface water moves, the layers of water  below it are set in motion at a progressively slower velocity, and in a direction progressively to the right of the one above it
    • Image Upload 6
  148. Ekman Transport
    • The average movement (of the Ekman Spiral)
    • Northern Hemisphere: 90° Right
    • Southern Hemisphere: 90° Left

    May be very nearly the same direction as the wind

    Image Upload 7
  149. El Niño
    • A southerly flowing warm current
    • Occurs around Christmastime
    • Can cause: flooding, erosion, droughts, fires, tropical storms, and effects on marine life
    • Can cause widespread death of plankton, fish, and predator fish
  150. El Niño- Southern Oscillation (ENSO)
    The correlation of El Nino events with an oscillatory pattern of pressure change in persistent high-pressure cell in the southeastern Pacific Ocean and a persistent low-pressure cell over the East Indies
  151. ENSO Index
    An index showing the relative strength of El Nino and La Nina conditions
  152. Equatorial Countercurrent
    • Westward-flowing currents
    • Found between the North and South Equatorial Currents in all oceans
    • Particularly well developed in the Pacific Ocean
  153. Equatorial Current
    • Currents resulting from the motion of water masses created by the southeast wind in the SH and the northeast wind in the NH.
    • Travel westward along the equator and form the equatorial boundary current of subtropical gyres
  154. Equatorial Upwelling
    Upwelling as a result of divergence of currents along the equator

    Image Upload 8
  155. Florida Current
    • Place where the Antilles and Caribbean Current reconverge
    • Flows close to shore over the continental shelf at a rate that at time exceeds 35 Sverdups
  156. Geostrophic Current
    A current that grows out of Earth's rotation and is the result of a near balance between gravitational force and the Coriolis Effect
  157. Gulf Stream
    • Best studied of all ocean currents
    • Moves northward along the East Coast of the United States
    • Warms coastal states and moderates winters in these and northern states
  158. Gyre
    • Large, circular-moving loops of water
    • Driven by the major wind belts of the world
  159. Indian Ocean Subtropical Gyre
    • The large, counterclockwise-flowing subtropical gyre that exists in the Indian Ocean
    • Aka: Majid Gyre
  160. Kuroshio Current
    • Warm waters
    • Make Japan's climate warmer than expected for its latitude
  161. La Niña
    • Conditions similar to normal but intensified
    • Associated with sea temperatures and weather phenomena opposite El Nino
    • Usually follows El Nino
  162. Leeuwin Current
    • In the southern Indian Ocean, this current displaces the West Australian Current
    • Driven southward along the Australian coast from the warm-water dome piled up in the East Indies by the Pacific equatorial currents
    • Produces mild climate in southwestern Australia
    • Weakens during El Niño
  163. Monsoon
    • Seasonal winds
    • Northeast Monsoon, Southwest Monsoon
  164. North Atlantic Deep Water
    A deep-water mass that forms primarily at surface of the Norwegian Sea and moves south  along the floor of the North Atlantic Ocean
  165. North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre
    • The large, clockwise-flowing subtropical gyre that exists in the North Atlantic Ocean
    • Aka: Columbus Gyre
  166. North Equatorial Current
    • Moves parallel to the equator in the NH
    • Joined by the South Equatorial Current that turns northward
  167. North Pacific Current
    Connects to the cool-water California Current
  168. North Pacific Subtropical Gyre
    • The large, clockwise-flowing subtropical gyre that exists in the North Pacific Ocean
    • Aka: Turtle Gyre
  169. Northern Boundary Current
    The northern boundary current of Northern Hemisphere subtropical gyres.
  170. Ocean Current
    • Masses of ocean water that flow from one place to another
    • Amount of water: large or small
    • Currents: at the surface or deep below
    • Phenomena creating them: simple or complex
  171. Oceanic Common Water
    Created when Antarctic Bottom Water and North Atlantic Deep Water mix
  172. Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO)
    • Lasts 20-30 years
    • Appears to influence Pacific sea surface temperatures
  173. Pacific Warm Pool
    • A wedge of warm water on the western side of the Pacific Ocean
    • The water warms by flowing in the equatorial region
  174. Productivity
    An abundance of microscopic algae
  175. Sargasso Sea
    • The water that circulates around the rotation center of the North Atlantic gyre
    • Surface includes large amounts of Sargassum
  176. South Atlantic Subtropical Gyre
    • The large, counterclockwise-flowing subtropical gyre that exists in the South Atlantic Ocean
    • Aka: Navigator Gyre
  177. South Pacific Subtropical Gyre
    • The large, counterclockwise-flowing subtropical gyre that exists in the South Pacific Ocean
    • Aka: Heyerdahl Gyre
  178. Southern Boundary Current
    The southern boundary current of Southern Hemisphere subtropical gyres
  179. Southern Oscillation
    Phenomenon where eat-west atmospheric pressure seesaw accompany the warm current (El Nino)
  180. Subpolar Gyre
    • A small, circular-moving loop of water that is centered at about 60°N/S latitude
    • Northern Hemisphere: Rotate Counterclockwise
    • Southern Hemisphere: Rotate Clockwise
    • Smaller and fewer than subtropical gyres
  181. Subtropical Convergence
    • The zone of convergence that occurs within all subtropical gyres
    • Result of Ekman transport driving water toward the interior of the gyres
  182. Subtropical Gyres
    • The center of each gyre coincides with the subtropics at 30°N/S latitude
    • Northern Hemisphere: Rotate Clockwise
    • Southern Hemisphere: Rotate Counterclockwise
  183. World's 5 Subtropical Gyres
    • 1) The North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre
    • 2) The South Atlantic Subtropical Gyre
    • 3) The North Pacific Subtropical Gyre
    • 4) The South Pacific Subtropical Gyre
    • 5) The Indian Ocean Subtropical Gyre
  184. Surface Current
    • Wind-driven current
    • Moves water horizontally
    • Occurs primarily in the ocean's surface waters
  185. Sverdup (Sv)
    A unit of flow rate equal to 1 million cubic meters per second
  186. Temperature Salinity (T-S) Diagram
    Can be used to identify deep-water masses based on their characteristic temperature, salinity, and resulting density.

    Image Upload 9
  187. Thermohaline Circulation
    • Vertical movement of ocean water
    • Driven by density differences resulting from the combined effects of variations in temperature and salinity
    • Produces deep current
  188. Tropical Atmosphere and Ocean (TAO)
    Project started after TOGA to continue monitoring the equatorial Pacific Ocean
  189. Tropical Ocean-Global Atmosphere (TOGA)
    Program initiated to study how El Nino events develop
  190. Upwelling
    • ♡ Vertical movement of cold, deep, nutrient-rich water to the surface
    • ♡ Hoists chilled water to the surface
    • ♡ This cold water (rich in nutrients) then creates high productivity which establishes the base of the food web, and in turn, supports incredible numbers of larger marine life like fish and whales

    Image Upload 10
  191. Walker Circulation Cell
    • Pattern of atmospheric circulation
    • Involves the rising of warm air over the East Indies low-pressure cell and its descent over the high-pressure cell in the southeastern Pacific Ocean off the coast of Chile
    • It is the weakening of this circulation that accompanies an El Nino event
  192. Warm-core Ring
    • Areas in the Sargasso Sea where warm water is trapped
    • Rotates clockwise
    • Surrounded by cooler water
    • Contain shallow, bowl-shaped masses of warm water about 0.6mile deep, with diameters of about 60 miles
    • Remove large volumes of water as they disconnect from the Gulf Stream
  193. West Australian Current (WAC)
    An eastern boundary current that merges with the South Equatorial current, completing the gyre
  194. West Wind Drift
    • Main current in Antarctic waters
    • AKA: Antarctic Cirumpolar Current, Penguin Gyre
    • Encircles Antarctica
    • Flows west to east at approximately 50°S latitude but varies (40-65°)
    • The only current that completely circumscribes Earth and is allowed to do so because of the lack of land at high southern latitudes
  195. Western Boundary Current
    • Currents deflected away from the equator by the Coriolis Effect because they cannot cross land when they reach the western portion of an ocean basin
    • Comprise the western boundaries of subtropical gyres
    • Travel along the western boundary of their respective ocean basins
    • Because they come from equatorial regions where water temperatures are warm, they carry warm water to higher latitudes
  196. Western Intensification
    • Pertaining to the intensification of warm western boundary currents of each subtropical gyre that are faster, narrower, and deeper than their corresponding eastern boundary currents
    • Can be cause by the Coriolis Effect
  197. Atmospheric Wave
    • Represented by ripplelike clouds in the sky
    • Created by the movement of different air masses
    • Especially common when cold fronts move into an area
    • Occurs along air-air interface
  198. Beaufort Wind Scale
    Describes the appearance of the sea surface from dead calm conditions to hurricane-force winds
  199. Capillary Wave
    • ♡ Small, rounded waves with V-shaped troughs and short wavelengths
    • ♡ Aka: ripples

    Image Upload 11
  200. Circular Orbital Motion
    The motion of water particles caused by a wave as the wave is transmitted through water
  201. Constructive Interference
    Occurs when wave trains having the same wavelength come together in phase (crest to crest) and trough to trough

    Image Upload 12
  202. Crest
    • High parts of waves
    • Image Upload 13
  203. Decay Distance
    The distance over which waves change from a choppy "sea" to uniform swell
  204. Deep-Ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis (DART)
    • Utilizes sea floor sensors that are capable of picking up the small yet distinctive pressure pulse from a tsunami passing above
    • The sensors relay information to a buoy at the surface that transmits data via satellite
  205. Deep-Water Wave
    • Waves with a water depth great than the wave base
    • Has no interference with the ocean bottom
    • Includes all wind-generated waves in the open ocean, where water depths far exceed wave base
    • Image Upload 14
  206. Destructive Interference
    Occurs when wave trains having the same wavelength come together out of phase (crest to trough)

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  207. What force generates the most waves?
  208. Disturbing Force
    The energy that causes waves to form
  209. Frequency
    • f
    • The number of wave crests passing a fixed location per unit time
    • Inverse of the period: Image Upload 16
  210. Fully Developed Sea
    • An equilibrium that prevents waves from growing
    • Waves can grow no further in a fully developed sea because they lose as much energy breaking as whitecaps under the force of gravity as they receive from the wind
  211. Gravity Wave
    Symmetric waves

    Image Upload 17
  212. Interference Pattern
    • Produced when two or more wave systems collide
    • The sum of the disturbance that each wave would have individually
  213. Internal Wave
    • Waves that travel along the boundary between waters of different desnity
    • Associated with a pycnocline
    • Occur along water-water interface
    • Can be much larger than surface waves
  214. Splash waves
    • Waves created by mass movement
    • Examples: Coastal landslides, Large icebergs falling from coastal glaciers
  215. Longitudinal Wave
    • Aka: push-pull waves
    • A wave phenomenon when particle vibration is parallel to the direction of energy propagation
  216. Mixed Interference
    Image Upload 18
  217. Ocean Wave
    • Aka: Wave
    • Created by the movement of air across the ocean surface
    • Occurs along the air-Water Interface
  218. Orbital Wave
    • Waves at the ocean surface
    • Aka: Interface waves
  219. Orthogonal Line
    • A line constructed perpendicular to a wave front and spaced so that the energy between lines is  equal at all times
    • Used to help determine how energy is distributed along shoreline by breaking waves
    • Aka: wave rays
    • Image Upload 19
  220. Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC)
    • Coordinates information from 25 Pacific Rim countries
    • Headquarters: Ewa Beach (near Honolulu), Hawaii
    • Tsunami warning system that uses seismic  waves to forecast destructive tsunamis
  221. Plunging Breaker
    Impressive curling breakers that form on moderately sloping beaches
  222. Refraction
    The process by which the part of a wave in shallow water is slowed down, causing the wave to bend and align itself nearly parallel to the shore
  223. Rogue Wave
    Massive, solitary, spontaneous waves that can reach enormous height and often occur at times when normal ocean waves are not unusually large
  224. Sea
    • Area where wind-driven waves are generated
    • Aka: Sea area
    • Characteristics: Choppiness; Waves moving in many directions; Variety of wavelengths
  225. Shallow-Water Wave
    • Waves in which the depth (d) is less than 1/20 of the wavelength
    • Aka: Long waves
    • Said to touch bottom or feel bottom because they touch the ocean floor which interferes with the wave's orbital motion
  226. Shoaling
    To become shallow
  227. Spilling Breaker
    • A turbulent mass of air and water that runs down the front slope of the wave as it breaks
    • Result from a gently sloped ocean bottom, which gradually extracts energy from the wave over an extended distance and produces breakers with low overall energy
  228. Splash Wave
    • A type of tsunami
    • Occur when large objects splash into the ocean
  229. Standing Wave
  230. Still Water Level
    Point halfway between crests and troughs

    Image Upload 20
  231. Surf Beat
    The varied sequence of higher and lower waves
  232. Surf Zone
    The nearshore zone of breaking waves
  233. Surging Breaker
    • Created when the ocean bottom has an abrupt slope and the wave energy is compressed into a shorter distance and the wave surges forward
    • These waves build up and break right at the shoreline
  234. Swell
    • Uniform, symmetrical waves that have traveled out of their area of orientation
    • Move with little loss of energy over large stretches of the ocean surface
    • Transports energy away from one sea area and depositing it in another
  235. Transitional Wave
    • Waves that have characteristics of both shallow-water and deep-water waves
    • Wavelengths are 2-20 times the water depth
    • The speed of these waves depend partially on water depth and partially on wavelength
  236. What are Transverse and Longitudinal waves called? Why?
    • Body Waves
    • They transfer energy through a body of matter
  237. Transverse Wave
    • Aka: Side-side waves
    • Energy travels at right angles to the direction of the vibrating particles
  238. Trough
    Low parts of waves

    Image Upload 21
  239. Tsunami
    • Originate from sudden changes in the topography of the sea floor
    • Causes: Slippage along underwater faults, underwater avalanches (ex: turbidity currents), and underwater volcanic eruptions; Majority: Fault Movement
    • Trigger: Seismic events
  240. Wave Base
    • ♡ Depth at which circular orbital motion become negligible
    • ♡ Exists at a depth of one-half wavelength measured vertically from still water level
    • ♡ Only wavelength controls the depth of the wave base - The longer the wave, the deeper the wave base

    Image Upload 22
  241. Wave Dispersion
    The sorting of waves by their wavelength
  242. Wave Height
    • H
    • The vertical distance between a crest and a trough

    Image Upload 23
  243. Wave Period
    • T
    • Time it takes one full wave (one wavelength) to pass a fixes position
    • Typical Length Range: 6-16 seconds
  244. Wave Reflection
    A process in which a vertical barrier can reflect waves back into the ocean with little loss of energy

    Image Upload 24
  245. Wave Speed
    • The rate at which a wave travels
    • Aka: Celerity (C)

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  246. Wave Steepness
    Ratio of wave height to wavelength

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  247. Wave Train
    Groups of waves
  248. Wavelength
    • L
    • The horizontal distance between any two corresponding points on successive waveforms
    • Example: Crest to Crest or Trough to Trough
    • Image Upload 27
  249. Temperature
    • The greater the temperature, the greater the kinetic energy of the substance
    • Temperature changes when heat energy is added or removed from a substance
  250. What is the typical salinity of seawater?
    How much saltier than freshwater?
    • 3.5%
    • 200 times
Card Set
Oceanography - Chapters 5-8
Oceanography - Chapters 5-8