MedTerm4 Muscular

  1. What are the functions of the muscular system?
    • Actions help with movement of fluid through ducts and blood through the circulatory system.
    • Generates heat up to 85%
    • Hold body erect.
    • Helps make movement possible.
  2. What are the structures of the muscular system?
    • muscle fibers
    • tendons
    • fascia
    • aponeurosis
  3. Characteristics of muscular system?
    • slender cells
    • long fibers
  4. What are the three types of muscle fibers?
    • skeletal
    • smooth
    • cardiac
  5. Striated Muscle (skeletal/voluntary)
    • L: walls of hollow organs, attach to bone.
    • Fibers are striped and have many nuclei per fiber.
  6. Smooth Muscle (involuntary/visceral)
    • Functions as autonomic system.
    • L: walls of internal organs, digestive tract, blood vessels.
    • *unstriated*
  7. Myocardial Muscle (involuntary)
    • L: found in muscular wall of the heart.
    • Also known as myocardium or cardiac muscle.
  8. Tendons
    • attaches muscle to bone
    • Composed of CT
  9. Fascia
    • fibrous CT
    • F: covers and separates and supports muscle.
  10. Aponeurosis
    • F: attaches to bone or tissue.
    • Hard CT
    • Example pelvic girdle
  11. What are three characteristics of muscle?
    • Antagonistic
    • Contraction/Relaxation
    • Muscle Innervation
  12. Muscle Innervation
    stimulation of a muscle by an impulse transmitted by a motor nerve. When stimulation stops, the muscle relaxes.
  13. Antagonistic Muscle Pairs
    working in opposition to each other.
  14. Contraction
    tightening of muscle. It becomes shorter and thicker.
  15. Relaxation
    when a muscle returns to its original form. It becomes longer and thinner.
  16. List the ranges of motion.
    • Abduction
    • Adduction
    • Dorsiflexion
    • Depression
    • Circumduction
    • Flexion
    • Extention
    • Elevation
    • Supination
    • Plantar Flexion
    • Pronation
  17. Abduction
    movement away from the midline of the body.
  18. Adduction
    movement of limb toward the midline
  19. Flexion
    decreasing the angle between two bones by bending a limb at the joint.
  20. Extension
    increasing the angle between two bones or the straightening out of a limb.
  21. Elevation
    the act of raising or lifting a body part.
  22. Rotation
    circular movement around an axis such as the shoulder joint.
  23. Circumduction
    circular movement at the far end of a limb.
  24. Supination
    palm or sole of foot is turned forward or upward.
  25. Dorsiflexion
    movement that bends the foot upward.
  26. Plantar flexion
    movement that bends foot downward.
  27. How to name muscles:
    • Origin: where muscles begins
    • Insertion: muscle ends by attaching to a bone or tendon.
    • Action: named for their action.
    • Location: named for their location of the organ they are near.
    • Direction: named for the direction in which their fibers run.
    • Number of Divisions
    • Size/Shape
  28. muscul/o, my/o, myos/o
  29. fasci/o
  30. ten/o, tend/o, tendin/o
    tendon, stretch out, extend, strain
  31. -cele
    hernia, tumor, swelling
  32. -ia
    abnormal condition, disease
  33. fibr/o
  34. kines/o, kinesi/o
  35. -plegia
    paralysis, stroke
  36. tax/o
    coordination, order
  37. ton/o
  38. brady-
  39. duct
  40. ab-
    away from
  41. ad-
  42. -ion
  43. tens-
    stretch out
  44. carpi
  45. -ceps
  46. -lysis
    destruction, breaking down
  47. -rrhexis
  48. -penia
  49. tax-
  50. kines-
  51. clon-
    violent action
  52. -asthenia
    weakness or lack of strength
  53. -paresis
    partial or incomplete paralysis
  54. hemi-
  55. -plegia
  56. -desis
    bind or tie together
Card Set
MedTerm4 Muscular
Muscular system