Patho Exam 1

  1. What are the 2 types of multipotent stem cells arise from?
    The hematopoietic stem cells (myeloid stem cell)

    • Remain in the bone marrow

    –  Lymphopoietic stem cells (lymphoid stem cell)

    • Migrate to the lymphoid tissues in the thymus, lymphnodes, and spleen

    • Lymphocytes proliferate, mature, and interact with antigens
  2. What are the components of hematologic system?
    Plasma and plasma proteins most are made in the liver, with the exception of antibodies that are made in lymph
  3. What is the role of the plasma protein albumin?
    Essential role-regulation and passage of water and solutes through the capillaries
  4. What are the functions of plasma proteins?
    • Clotting factors
    • Defense 
    • Transport
    • Regulatory
  5. What are the cellular components of blood?
    • Erythrocytes
    • Leukocytes 
    • Platelets
  6. What are the types of leukocytes?
    • a. Granulocytes
    • b. agranulocytes
  7. What are the types of granulocytes?
    1. Neutrophils (most numerous) 

    2. Eosinophils

    3. Basophils
  8. What are the types of agranulocytes?
    • 1. Monocytes
    • 2. Lymphocytes (most numerous)
    • 3. Natural Killer cells
  9. What are monocytes?
    a. Immature macrophages

    b. Formed by bone marrow and released into the blood stream

    c. As mature, migrate into the liver, spleen, lymph, etc. where they mature into macrophages and migrate out of the vessels in response to infection
  10. What are lymphocytes?
    a. Primary cells in immune response

    b. Most reside in lymphoid tissue as mature T cells, B cells, plasma cells
  11. What is Hematopoiesis?
    Blood production and it occurs in the spleen and liver in a fetus and then only in the marrow after birth.
  12. What are the clinical magnifications of folate deficiency?
    Manifestations include cheilosis (scales/fissures of mouth, stomatitis (mouth inflammation), and painful ulcerations of buccal mucosa of tongue. Dysphagia, flatulence, watery diarrhea, GI changes suggesting sprue (chronic absorption disorder).
  13. What is Aplastic anemia?
    No changes in size or shape, hemoglobin levels are normal (normocytic-normochromic), but erythrocytes are insufficient in #
  14. What is Infectious mononucleosis?
    Acute infection of B lymphocytes with Epstein-Barr virus (EBF). B lymphocytes have receptors for EBV.
  15. What is Leukemia?
    Uncontrolled proliferation of leukocytes, causing an overcrowding of bone marrow and decreased production and function of normal hematopoietic cells.
  16. What are the types of leukemia?
    based on either myeloid or lymphoid origin, and the degree of differentiation before the cell became malignant
  17. What are the 4 types of Leukemia?
    Acute Lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), Acute Myelogenous leukemia (AML), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), and chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML).
  18. What is Myelocytic leukemia?
    Mutation of myeloid cell line, overproduction of moncytes or granulocytes, decrease in production of other cell types.
  19. What is Lymphadenopathy?
    Enlarged lymph nodes occur  that are palpable and tender due to an increase in size and number of germinal centers
  20. What is Idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura (ITP)?
    IgG antibody that targets platelet glycoproteins; antibody-coated platelets are sequestered and removed from circulation
  21. What is anemia?
    Reduction in the total number of erythrocytes in the circulating blood or in the quality or quantity of hemoglobin
  22. What are the compensation causes of anemia?
    tachycardia and palpitations, murmur
  23. What are signs of hemolytic anemias?
    jaundice, ↑bilirubin
  24. What are the signs of aplastic anemias?
    petechiae and purpura
  25. What is Thalassemia?
    is a defect in the alpha or beta chains
  26. What is Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)?
    Acquired clinical disorder in which clotting and hemorrhage occur simultaneously.
  27. What chain does sickle cell effect?
    Beta chains
  28. What population is at greatest risk for pernicious anemia?
    • People at the greatest risk for pernicious
    • anemia are people over the age of 30 who are of northern European descent, and also blacks and Hispanics.
  29. Why is oral B12 ineffective for treating pernicious anemia?
    Oral B12 administration is ineffective because the person has an intrinsic factor (IF) deficiency, which is required for B12 absorption.
  30. Howard, a 56-year-old smoker, has chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). He arrives at the clinic for a regular follow-up visit. His erythrocyte count, hemoglobin, and hematocrit are all elevated. What is the name of this type of disorder, and what is the likely cause?
    Polycythemia Vera (PV) is most likely caused by an acquired genetic stem cell alteration of the erythropoietin receptor causing abnormal proliferation of cells.
  31. Olivia is a 3-year-old recently diagnosed
    with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) found during her annual physical examination.

    What are the signs and symptoms of ALL?
    Chromosomal abnormalities, oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes most diagnosed during peak growth periods
  32. What are the clinical manifestations Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic purpura?
    Bruising and generalized petechial rash often occur with acute onset…Hemorrhagic bullae of the gums, lips and other mucous membranes
  33. What causes Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic purpura?
    1.  IgG antibody that targets platelet glycoproteins

    2. Antibody-coated platelets are sequestered and removed from circulation

    • 3.  The acute form of ITP often develops after
    • viral infection is one of the most common childhood bleeding disorders
  34. What particular conditions would you tell the parents are associated with increased sickling?
    “The general manifestations of hemolytic anemia-pallor, fatigue, jaundice, and irritability-sometimes accompanied by…” 

    1.vaso-occlusive crisis

    2. Sequestration crisis

    3.Aplastic crisis

    4. Hyperhemolytic crisis
  35. What education would you provide to a mother who has prescribed RhoGAM?
    RhoGAM stops antibodies to her Rh (+) blood from harming her infant’s blood type
  36. You suspect that Paul has an acute inflammatory response. List three observations that would confirm this suspicion.
    Edema, pain, erythema, heat
  37. Describe the clinical and cellular components
    that produce the signs and symptoms (redness, heat, swelling, pain, loss of function) that occur with this injury
    • -Vasodilation
    • -Increased vascular permeability and leakage of
    • fluid out of vessel 
    • -Vascular changes deliver leukocytes, plasma
    • proteins and biochemical mediators
  38. What cells need to be present for Hodgkin disease?
    Reed-Sternburg cell
  39. How long does it take for HIV to show up in a blood test?
    It takes at least two weeks, generally longer, for the body to produce enough antibodies against the HIV viral coat and proteins to show up on a blood test.
  40. Why would one get a vaccine?
    • Vaccines are helpful because they help our
    • bodies develop immunity to communicable diseases
  41. Describe the difference between active and passive immunity?
    Active immunity occurs when the body fights off antigen through humoral and cellular immune response and creates memory for that antigen. This can occur naturally, from contracting the illness and fighting it off or it can occur artificially, from receiving an immunization and in response, the body creates memory cells from an adaptive immune response against the injected virus.

    Passive immunity occurs when the body is not exposed to antigen but instead is administered antibodies from another body or source. Examples of this include naturally, through the passing on of antibodies from mother to child through breast milk and placenta and, artificially, by being injected immunoglobulins or antibodies for illnesses. For passive immunity, protection ceases when the antibodies degrade, whereas active immunity stores a memory.
  42. What is Angiogenesis?
    • the process in which the body grows new blood
    • vessels
Card Set
Patho Exam 1
Hematology, Immunity, Cancer, and Mechanisms of Disease