What is stress?
When a person experiences changes in the normal balanced state.
What is a stressor?
A Stressor is any event or stimulus that causes an individual to experience stress.
What is an internal stressor?
Originate w/i the person.
EX: Infection or feelings of depression
What is an External stressor?
Originate outside the individual.
- EX: A move to another city
- A death in the family
- Peer pressure
What are developmental stressors?
Developmental stressors occur at predictable times throughout an individual's life.
List Developmental Stressors for a Young Adult:
Developmental stressors for a Young Adult:
- Leaving Home
- Managing a Home
List Developmental Stressors for a Middle Adult:
Developmental Stressors for Middle Adult:
- Physical ages of changing
- Maintaining social status and standard of living
- Helping teenage children to become independent
- Aging parents
List Developmental Stressors for an Older Adult:
Developmental Stressors for an Older Adult:
- Decreasing physical abilities & health
- Changes in residence
- Retirement and reduced income
- Death of a spouse & friends
What does stimulus based stress models mean?
A stimulus based stress model is stress defined as a stimulus, a life event or a set of circumstances that arouses physiological and/or psychological reactions that may increase the individual's vulnerability to illness.
What is GAS- General Adaptation Syndrome?
A chain or pattern of physiological events that occur throughout the body. It is the body's response to stress. Global adaptation.
Essentially, what occurs during GAS (general adaptation syndrome)?
During GAS, the body's response is the release of certain hormones and subsequent changes in the structure and chemical composition of the body.
What parts of the body are affected by stress?
Parts of the body particularly affected by stress are the gastrointestinal tract (GI), the adrenal glands, and the lymphatic structures.
What is LAS- Local Adaptation Syndrome?
The body's reaction to stress, locally. Such as one organ or a part of the body reacting alone.
What are the 3 stages of GAS and LAS?
- Alarm Reaction
- Stage of Resistance
- Stage of Exhaustion
List the details of Alarm reaction with its 2 parts:
Alarm reaction is when the body reacts to a stressor. During the Shock Phase, the stressor stimulates the Sympathetic Nervous System. Adrenal medulla secretes Epinephrine and Nor-Epinephrine.
Secretion of Epi results in Tachycardia, increase Myocardial Infarction, increase Bronchial Dialation, increase Blood Clotting, increase Metabolism.
Secretion of Nor-Epi results in decreased blood to kidney, increase in renin.
Secretion of Cortisone, hyperglycemic.
During Countershock, everything that occurs during Shock phase is reversed.
What occurs during Stage of Resistance?
Stage of Resistance is when the body's adaptation takes place.
What occurs during the Stage of Exhaustion?
During the Stage of Exhaustion, the adaptation that the body made during the Stage of Resistance cannot be maintained, the ways used to cope w/ stressor have been exhausted. At the end the body either rests and returns to homeostasis or death occurs.
List some Objective symptoms that the Nurse would see in a PT who is experiencing STRESS:
- Pupils dialate
- Diaphoresis (sweat) increases
- HR and cardiac output increase
- Skin is pallad
- Na and H2O retention increase
- RR and depth increase
- Urinary output decreases
- Mouth may be dry
- Peristalsis of the intestines decreases
- Mental alertness improves
- Muscle tension increases
- Blood sugar increases
List 2 common Psychological indicators of stress:
List MILD indicators of levels of anxiety:
- Increased questioning
- Mild restlessness
- Feelings of increased arousal and alertness
- No resp or circulatory changes occur
List MODERATE indicators of levels of anxiety:
- Voice tremors and pitch changes
- Tremors, Facial twitches, and shakiness
- increase muscle tension
- Narrowed focus of attent
- Able to focus, selectively inattentive
- Learning slightly impaired
- Slightly increased respiratory & heart rates
- Mild gastric Sx (ex: butterflies in stomach)
List SEVERE indicators of levels of anxiety:
- Communication difficult to understand
- Increase motor activity, inability to relax
- Fearful facial expression
- Inability to focus or concentrate
- Learning severely impaired
- Tachycardia, hyperventilation
- Headache, dizziness and nausea
List PANIC indicators of levels of anxiety:
- Communication may not be understandable
- Increase motor activity agitation
- Unpredictable responses
- Trembling, poor motor coordination
- Perception distorted poor or exaggerated
- Unable to learn or function
- Dyspnea, palpitations, choking, chest pain, or pressure
- Feeling of impending Doom
- Paresthesia, sweating
Define Defense Mechanism:
Defense mechanisms are unconscious psychological adaptive mechanisms or, according to Freud mental mechanisms that develop as the personality attempts to defend itself.......
List some Defense mechanisms:
- Reaction Formation