Pulmonary signs, symptoms, and diseases

  1. Crackles (rales)
    abnormal breath sound

    fine crackling or bubbling sounds; commonly heard during inspiration when there is fluid in the alveoli

    associated with bronchitis, pneumonia, and heart failure.
  2. friction rub
    abnormal breath sound

    dry, grating sound heard with a stethoscope during auscultation.
  3. ronchi
    abnormal breath sound

    loud, coarse or snoring sounds heard during inspiration or expiration that is caused by obstructed airways.
  4. stridor
    abnormal breath sound

    high-pitched, musical sound made on inspiration that is caused by an obstruction in the trachea or larynx

    characteristic of Upper respiratory disorder called croup
  5. wheezes
    abnormal breath sound

    continuous high-pitched whistling sounds, usually during expiration, that are caused by narrowing of an airway.

    asthma, croup, hay fever, emphysema
  6. acidosis
    excessive acidity of blood due to an accumulation of acids or an excessive loss of bicarbonate

    caused by high levels of CO2 in the body
  7. ARDS
    acute respiratory distress syndrome

    respiratory insufficiency marked by progressive hypoxia...restrictive lung disease that follows severe infection or trauma in young and previously healthy individuals

    severe inflammatory damage that causes abnormal permeability of the alveolar-capillary membrane.  Alveoli fill with fluid, which interferes with gas exchange.
  8. anoxia
    total absence of oxygen in body tissues
  9. atel-
    incomplete; imperfect
  10. atelectasis
    collapse of lung tissue, preventing respiratory exchange of O2 and CO2

    caused by obstruction of foreign bodies, excessive secretions, or pressure on the lung from tumor
  11. consolidation
    process of becoming solid, especially in connection with the lungs

    -pathological engorgement of lung tissues that occurs in acute pneumonia
  12. coryza (cold)
    acute inflammation of nasal passages accompanied by profuse nasal discharge
  13. croup
    acute respiratory syndrome that occurs primarily in children and infants and is characterized by laryngeal obstruction and spasm, barking cough, and stridor
  14. cystic fibrosis
    genetic disease of exocrine glands characterized by excessive secretions of thick mucus that do not drain normally, causing obstruction of passageways (including pancreatic and bile ducts and bronchi)

    leads to chronic airway obstruction, recurrent respiratory infection, bronchiectasis and respiratory failure
  15. empyema
    pus in a body cavity, especially in the pleural cavity (pyothorax)

    result of primary infection in lungs
  16. epiglottitis
    acute form: life-threatening infection of the epiglottis and surrounding area that occurs most commonly in children ages 2-12

    classic form: sudden fever, dysphagia, inspiratory stridor, and severe respiratory distress
  17. epistaxis
    hemorrhage from the nose
  18. hypoxemia
    deficiency of oxygen in the blood, usually a sign of respiratory impairment
  19. hypoxia
    deficiency of oxygen in body tissues, usually a sign of respiratory impairment

    decreased oxygen = cyanosis
  20. influenza
    contagious infection; fever chills, headache and muscle pain
  21. lung cancer
    pulmonary malignancy (cigarette smoking)

    metastasizes rapidly
  22. pertussis
    acute infectious disease characterized by a 'whoop' sounding cough (aka whooping cough)

    DPT immunization prevents
  23. pleural effusion
    abnormal presence of fluid in pleural cavity.

    could be blood (hemothorax), serum (hydrothorax) or pus (pyothorax).  Surgery to remove excess fluid (thoracentesis, thoracocentisis)
  24. pneumothorax
    collection of air in the pleural cavity, causing the complete or partial collapse of a lung. 

    see picture
  25. ABG
    arterial blood gas

    measurement of O2 and CO2 content of arterial blood by various methods

    accesses adequacy of ventilation, oxygenation and acid-base balance
  26. bronchoscopy
    visual examinatyion of the interior bronchi using a bronchoscope (flexible fiberscopic instrument with a light, which can be inserted through the nose or mouth)
  27. chest x-ray
    radiograph of the chest taken from the AP, PA or lateral projections

    diagnoses atelectasis, tumors, pneumonia, emphysema, and many other lung diseases
  28. CT
    computed tomography

    uses narrow beam of x-rays that rotate in a full arc around the patient to acquire mulitple views of the body that a computer interprets to produce cross-sectional images of that body part

    detects lesions in lungs & thorax, blood clots, and pulmonary embolism (PE)l. may or may not have a contrast medium
  29. MRI
    uses electromagnetic energy to produce multiplanar cross-sectional images of the body
  30. pulmonary function test (PFT)
    variety of tests to determine the capacity of the lungs to exchange O2 and CO2 efficiently
  31. forced vital capacity (FVC)
    pulmonary function test

    measures amount of air that can be forcefully exhaled from the lungs after the deepest inhalation
  32. forced expiratory  volume in one second (FEV1)
    measures volume of air that can be forcefully exhaled during the first second of measuring FVC
  33. spirometry
    pulmonary function test

    spiro: to breathe

    measurement of FVC adn FEV1, producing a tracing on a graph
  34. postural drainage
    use of body positioning to assist in removal of secretions from specific lobes of the lung, bronchi, or lung cavities
  35. bronchodilators
    drugs used to increase airflow by dilating constricted airways through relaxation of the smooth muscles that surround the bronchioles and bronchi

    treat asthma, emphysema, COPD.  Often has a spacer
  36. corticosteroids
    hormonal agents that reduce tissue edema and inflammation associated with chronic lung disease
  37. NMT
    therapy that uses a device to produce a fine spray that delivers medication directly into the lungs
Card Set
Pulmonary signs, symptoms, and diseases
Pulmonary signs, symptoms, and diseases