bones/ skin

  1. long bone
    longer than wide
  2. short bone
    broad as long
  3. flat bone
    thin flattened usually curved shaped bone
  4. irregular bone
    various shape
  5. round bone is also known as
    sesamoid bone
  6. what are round bones
    small nodular and embedded within tendons
  7. epiphysis
    end of the bone
  8. epiphyseal disk
    responsible for bone growth in length
  9. diaphysis
    shaft of the bone
  10. periosteum
    outter layer of bone and site for growth in diameter
  11. compact bone
    tightly packed tissue found in the wall of the diaphysis
  12. spongy bone
    (cancellous bone) small spaces or cavities found in the epiphysis
  13. medullary cavity
    large cavity within the diaphysis filled with yellow marrow
  14. endosteum
    membrane that lines the inner surface of the bone
  15. what is articular cartilage and what does it do
    • composed of thin hyaline cartilage
    • caps each epiphysis
    • facilitates joint movement
  16. intramembranous
    bone formation occurring within the connective tissue membranes
  17. endochondral
    the growing of cartilage followed by the replacement of cartilage by bone
  18. endochondral growth is responsible for
    increase in bone length
  19. most of the skeleton bones are
    endochondral bones
  20. osteoblast
    bone producing cells
  21. osteocytes
    • mature bones cells derived from osteoblast
    • maintain healthy bone tissue and regualtes calcium
  22. osteoclast
    • enzymatically breakdown bone tissue in fractures
    • involved in healing and remodeling bones
  23. 4 factors that affect bone growth
    • nutrition
    • exposure to sunlight
    • hormonal secretions
    • physical exercise
  24. vitamin D is necessary for the body to absorb
  25. low Vitamin D in children result in
  26. low Vitamin D in adults result in
    ostomalacia or softening of bones
  27. Vitamin C is necessary for
    collagen synthesis by osteoblasts
  28. lack of vitamin C may inhibit what?
    bone development
  29. What is Scruvy? and what does it cause?
    Vitamin C and it causes teeth to fall out
  30. what is secreted by the pituitary gland  and increases the production of cartilage cells?
    Growth Hormone (GH)
  31. thyroid hormones stimulates the replacement of what
  32. deficiency in thyroid hormone may stunt
  33. what is red marrow responsible for formation of
    • RBC
    • WBC
    • platelets
  34. yellow marrow does what
    stores fat and is inactive in blood cell production
  35. red marrow is found where
    in spongy bone
  36. what are 4 areas of sinuses
    • frontal
    • sphenoid
    • ethmoid
    • maxillary
  37. how many bones are there?
    206 but varies person to person
  38. 2 division of the skeleton
    • axial
    • appendicular
  39. condyle
    rounded process that usually articulates with another bone
  40. crest
    a narrow, ridge-like projection
  41. facet
    small nearly flat surface
  42. epicondyle
    a projection situated above a condyle
  43. fissure
    a cleft or groove
  44. fontanel
    soft spot in the skull where membranes cover a space between bones
  45. foramen
    an opening through a bone that usually serves as a passage way for blood vessels nerves and ligaments
  46. fossa
    a deep pit or impression
  47. fovea
    tiny pit or depression
  48. head
    enlargement on the end of a bone
  49. linea
    a narrow ridge
  50. meatus
    tubelike passageway within a bone
  51. process
    a prominent projection on a bone
  52. ramus
    a branch or similar extension
  53. sinus
    cavity within a bone
  54. spine
    thornlike projection
  55. suture
    interlocking line of union between bones
  56. trochanter
    relatively large process
  57. tubercle
    small knoblike process
  58. tuberosity
    knoblike process usually larger than a tubercle
  59. how many cranial bones
    "pest of 6"
  60. facial bones
    virgil can not stop making my pet zebra laugh
  61. frontal bone
  62. parietal bones
    superior and lateral walls of the cranium
  63. sagittal sutures connects ....
    2 parietal bones
  64. coronal suture connects the parietal bones to the ...
    frontal bone
  65. what bone lies inferior to the parietal bones
  66. mandibular fossa receives and forms...
    • receives mandibular condyle
    • forms the TMJ
  67. this connects the temporal bones to the parietal bones
    squamous sutures
  68. mastoid process is ...
    a rough projection and houses the mastoid sinuses just inferior to the ear
  69. what suture joins occipital bone and the parietal bones
    lambdoid suture
  70. what is the C1 vertebrae called
  71. what articulates with the atlas
    occipital condyles
  72. a butterfly shaped bone of the cranium
    sphenoid bone
  73. what midline depression holds the pituitary gland
    sella turcica or turks saddle
  74. what houses the crista galli and cribiform plate
    ethmoid bone
  75. the lacrimal is a passageway for that?
  76. what causes cleft palate or cleft lip
    failure of the palatine processes or palatine bone to fuse medially
  77. what is the largest and strongest bone of the face
  78. when is cleft lip surgery generally done?
    when a child is about 10 weeks old
  79. what bone is located in the neck between the lower jaw and the larynx?
    hyoid bone
  80. what bone supports the tongue?
    hyoid bone
  81. how many pairs of true ribs do humans have
  82. what makes ribs true ribs
    they attach directly to the sternum by costal cartilage
  83. how many false ribs are there and why are they false ribs?
    5 pairs and are false ribs because they do not connect to the sternum
  84. the last (lower) 2 pair of ribs are called ____ because they lack cartilage
    floating ribs
  85. 3 areas of the sternum caused by 3 fused bones
    • manubrium
    • body
    • xipoid process
  86. how many C, T, and L vertebra's are there
    • C-7
    • T- 12
    • L- 5
  87. sacrum has how many fused bones
  88. coccyx has how many fused bones
  89. how many vertebrae eventually fuse together
  90. what curvature develops when a baby begins to walk
  91. what curvature develops when a baby begins to hold their head up
  92. what are 2 primary curvatures
    • thoracic
    • sacral
  93. ____ is the abnormal thoracic curvature
  94. which vertebrae has a bifurcated spinous process
  95. what is the C2 vertebrae called
  96. what is the purpose of the odontoid process (dens)
    pivot point for the atlas 
  97. what attaches the manubrium to the scapula
    clavicle or collarbone
  98. what shallow socket receives the head of the humerus?
    glenoid cavity
  99. which bone has the medial trochlea, capitulum and coronoid fossa
  100. what process provides attachment for the ligaments of the wrist and forearm bones
  101. what is the sit down bone of the hip
  102. what is the largest and most superior portion of the coxal bone
  103. what is the anterior part of the coxa?
  104. the acetabulum receives the
    head of the femur
  105. what is the largest and strongest bone of the body?
  106. the tibia's medial malleolous forms the inner bulge of the ___
  107. the tibia is ______ bone  and the fibula is the _____ bone to the body
    • medial
    • lateral
  108. how to number tarsals 1-5
    1 is medial (large toe) and 5 is the most lateral smallest toe
  109. ____ remove excess bony tissue restoring new bone structure during a fracture
  110. what connective tissue is at the deep end of the hair follicle that nourishes the epidermal cells
    hair papilla
  111. attaches each hair follicle and causes hair to stand on end when muscles contract
    arrector pili muscle
  112. sebaceous glands are known as
  113. what is programmed cell death (like sunburn peeling)
  114. waht is caused by excessive cell division and karitination (hardening of cells)
  115. what arises from melanocytes and caused by short term exposure light and occurs more often in light skinned people
    cutaneous melanoma
  116. what is most common skin cancer that develops in the epi tissue it is slow growing causes dry and scaly areas with red bases
    cutaneous carcenoma
  117. what type of cells form the deepest skin layer
    stratum basale
  118. what kind of cells are the outer dead cells called
    stratum corneum
  119. what cells are in the epidermis
    stratified squamous
  120. when does the sacrum fuse
    18-30 yrs old
  121. when do the coccyx bones fuse
    25-30 years old
  122. all bones start as
  123. immature bone cells are called
  124. syndactyly is known as
    web toes (fused digits)
  125. what is polydactyly
    extra digits
  126. what are 2 layers of the dermis
    • dermal papilla layer
    • reticular layer
  127. which skin layer contains the blood vessels muscle fibers and nerve endings
  128. what forms fingerprints and footprints
    dermal papilla
  129. what layer makes stretch marks?
    reticular layer
  130. what part of hair  protrudes above surface of the skin
  131. tubelike depression of epidermal cells where hair develops
    hair follicles
  132. horizontal furrows of the nail may indicate what
  133. curvature of the nails may indicate disorders of the ___, ____, and _____
    heart lungs and liver
  134. red strikes in nails may indicate ____, ____, or ____
    RA, Ulcers, HTN
  135. what is the lunula
    white moon shaped area of nails
  136. oily secretion from sebaceous gland are called ___-
  137. what releases their entire cell with secretory products
    holocrine glands
  138. what are sudoriferous glands
    sweat glands
  139. what glands appear with puberty?
    apocrine glands
  140. what is the leading cause of accidental deaths
  141. burns are estimated buy using the
    rules of 9's
  142. what is the rule of 9
    in burns, the body is divided in approx 9% or multiples of 9% of total body surface.
  143. first degree burns involves what skin layer
  144. what burn is marked by reddness, slight edema and pain lke that of a sunburn
    1st degree
  145. 1st and 2nd degree burns are AKA
    partial thickness burns
  146. what burn involves the epidermis and the dermis?
    2nd degree
  147. 3rd degree burns are AKA
    full thickness burns
  148. what burn involves the epidermis, dermis and deeper tissue being destroyed
    3rd degree
  149. what kind of grafts come from an unrelated person?
  150. what graft comes from using skin from another area of ones own body
  151. what burns are usually painless and destroys sensory receptors
    3rd degree
  152. 2 important concideration in treating burn victims
    • fluid replacement
    • infection control
Card Set
bones/ skin
bones and skin test