1. joints are
    the junction between bones
  2. athro/articular refer to
  3. arthrology
    study of joints
  4. articular surfaces
    the smooth bony surfaces that come together to form freely movable joints
  5. 3 general classifications of joints
    • immovable fibrous joints
    • slightly movable cartilaginous joints
    • freely movable synovial joints
  6. immovable
    fibrous joints
  7. slightly movable
    cartilaginous joints
  8. freely movable
    synovial joints
  9. synarthroses
    fibrous joints
  10. fibrous joints
    immovable. bones firmly united by fibrous tissues
  11. example of fibrous joint
    • sutures in skull
    • splint bones of horse
  12. ampiarthroses
    cartilaginous joints
  13. cartilaginous joints
    slightly movable. rocking movement
  14. example of cartilaginous joint
    • intervertebral disks
    • pubic symphysis 
    • mandibular symphysis
  15. diarthroses
    synovial joints
  16. synovial joints
    freely movable
  17. example of synovial joint
    • shoulder joint (humerus&scapula)
    • stifle joint (tibia/fibula&femur)
    • elbow (ulna/radius&humerus)
    • hip (femur&acetabulum) 
  18. characteristics of synovial joint
    • articular surfaces covered with articular cartilage
    • fluid-filled joint cavity enclosed by a joint capsule
    • ligaments may be present to stabilize
  19. ligament
    bands of fibrous connective tissue present in and around many synovial joints. connect bone to bone
  20. articular cartilage
    thin, smooth layer of hyaline cartilage that lies on the tip of articular surface of a bone

    (to reduce friction/aid in smooth movement)
  21. joint cavity/space
    fluid filled potential space between the joint surfaces. a multilayered joint capsule surrounds it. the outer layer of the joint capsule is fibrous tissue, the lining layer is synovial membrane. synovial membrane produces the synovial fluid that lubricates the joint surfaces.
  22. synovial fluid
    • normally transparent
    • viscosity of medium-weight motor oil
  23. when joint disease is suspected
    joint "tap" often performed. presurgical skin prep, insert needle into joint cavity and withdraw synovial fluid for examination, analysis, and possible bacterial culture
  24. synovial joints movements
    • flexion
    • extension
    • adduction
    • abduction
    • rotation
    • circumduction
  25. flexion
    decrease angle between two bones
  26. extension
    increases angle between two bones
  27. adduction
    movement of an extremity toward the median plane
  28. abduction
    movement of an extremity away from the median plane
  29. rotation
    twisting movement of a part on its own axis

    (hold arm out with palm down, move it so palm is up)
  30. circumduction
    movement of an extremity so that the distal end moves in a circle

    (extend arm, move hand in a circle)
  31. types of synovial joints
    • hinge joints
    • gliding joints
    • pivot joints
    • ball-and-socket joints
  32. hinge joints
    also called ginglymus joints

    • one joint surface swivels around another
    • only movements possible are flexion and extension
  33. examples of hinge joint
    • elbow joint
    • atlantooccipital joint

    (flexion&extension of atlantooccipital joint moves the skull up and down in a nodding "yes" motion)
  34. gliding joints
    arthrodial joints

    • joint surfaces relatively flat. movement between them is rocking motion.
    • main movements possible are flexion and extension, but some abduction and adduction may also be possible.
  35. example of gliding joint
    carpus (wrist)
  36. pivot joints
    trochoid joints

    • one bone pivots or rotates on another
    • only movement possible is rotation
  37. example of pivot joint
    atlantoaxial joint

    only movement allows is the rotation of the head back and forth saying "no"

    (only one true pivot joint in most animals: joint between first and second cervical vertebrae)
  38. ball-and-socket joints
    spheroidal joints

    allows most extensive movement (allow all the synovial joint movements)

    permits flexion, extension, adduction, abduction, rotation, circumduction
  39. example of ball-and-socket joints
    shoulder and hip joints
  40. nutritional bone complications
    • rickets
    • osteomalacia
    • hypervitaminosis A
    • scurvy
  41. 2 most important bone developing minerals
    calcium and phosphorus 
  42. vitamin D3
    UV hits skin, vitamin D3 in skin, UV turns D3 into D1 to absorb calcium&phosphorus in diet
  43. which type of joints give us the most trouble? (deal with the most)
    freely movable synovial joints
  44. anatomical term for fibrous joint
  45. joints are immovable in that the bones are firmly united by fibrous tissue
    fibrous joints
  46. anatomical term for synovial joints
  47. TMJ has what kind of joints?
    hinge joints&gliding joint
  48. purest of diarthroses joint
  49. extracapsular ligaments
    medial&lateral collateral ligaments
  50. intracapsular ligaments
    anterior&posterior cruciate ligaments
  51. ACL
    anterior cruciate ligament
  52. bursitis
    swelling of bursa sacs (becomes infected or inflamed)
  53. outer layer of capsule
    fibrous tissue
  54. lining layer of capsule
    synovial membrane
  55. is synovial fluid trans or exudate?
  56. two strap like "both sides" ligaments connect the femur and tibia
    medial and lateral collateral ligaments
  57. inside the joints are two ligaments that cross each other in an "X" shape
    anterior and posterior cruciate ligament

    (help prevent bones of stifle from sliding back and forth as the joint bends and strengthens) 
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togetherness :)