1. frontalis
  2. temporalis
    close jaw
  3. masseter
    close jaw
  4. sternocleidomastoid
  5. pectoralis major
    flex/adducts forearm
  6. rectus abdominis
    flex lumbar region to bend forward
  7. external oblique
    stab spine
  8. internal oblique
    stab spine maintain posture, rotate at waist
  9. transversus abdominus
    compress contents of abd
  10. external intercostals
    elevate ribs
  11. internal intercostals
    depress ribs
  12. latissimus dorsi
    add and extends arm backward
  13. trapezxius
    raise/lower shoulder
  14. deltoid
    add, flex, rotate arm
  15. brachialis
    flex forearm
  16. brachioradialis
    • help
    • flex forearm
  17. triceps brachii
    extend forearm
  18. gluteus maximus
    extend/rotate thigh outward
  19. gluteus medius
    abd/rotates thigh
  20. sartorius
    add/flex leg/ cross-legged
  21. iliopsoas
    flex thigh
  22. quadriceps femoris
    flex thigh/extend leg
  23. tibialis anterior
    dorsiflexion foot
  24. fibularis longus
    dorsiflexion foot
  25. gastrocnemius
    plantar flex
  26. soleus
  27. achilles tendon
    strongest, calcaneus
  28. hamstrings
    extend thigh
  29. cardiac muscle
    • heart
    • short, branching fibers intercalated discs
    • striated
    • involuntary
  30. smooth muscle
    • dig tract, bld vess, bladder, airways, uterus
    • not striated
    • involuntary
  31. skeletal muscle
    • attached to bone, movement
    • voluntary
    • striated
  32. a skeletal muscle cell is called a
    muscle fiber
  33. a delicate connective tiss called _____ covers ea muscle fiber
  34. muscle fibers are grouped in bundles called
  35. a sheath of tougher connective tiss called _____ surrounds the muscle as a whole and binds all the muscle fibers together.
  36. connective tiss called ____ surrounds the muscle outside the epimysium
  37. ____ _____ lies between muscles
    deep fascia
  38. __________ __________ resides just under the skin
    superficial fascia
  39. tendons rarely break but can be pulled
  40. two ways skeletal muscle can attach to a bone
    direct and indirect attachment
  41. direct attachment is
    muscle fibers merge with the periosteum of the bone, forming strong attachment
  42. indirect attachment
    epimysium extends past the muscle as a tendon that merges with the periosteum
  43. the plasma membrane surrounding ea fiber is called
  44. cytoplasm of a cell is called
  45. long protein bundles are called
  46. what two thing do myfibriles store
    glycogen and oxygen
  47. the smooth endoplasmic reticulum of a muscle fiber that surrounds ea myofibrile
    sarcoplasmic reticulum
  48. where are calcium ions stored
    sarcoplasmic reticulum
  49. even finer fibers in the myofibriles are called
  50. two types of myofilaments
    thick and thin
  51. myosin
    think myofilaments made of protein
  52. actin
  53. what gives skeletal muscle a striated appearance
    arrangement of actin and myosin
  54. a system of tubles is called
    transverse tubules
  55. what allows electrical impulses to travel deep into the cell
    transverse tubules
  56. sarcomeres
    latticework of thin and thick myofilaments formed units
  57. z disc
    plate serves as an anchor pnt for thin myofilaments
  58. muscle contraction occurs at the
  59. section between the z discs is called
  60. describe relaxed muscle
    myosin and actin lie side by side, completely detached
  61. describe muscle contraction
    when myosin head latch onto actin. forms cross-bridge bw actin and myosin. myosin heads latch onto and release actin repeatedly, creating power strokes that propel actin forward toward the center of the sarcomere. pulls z discs closer together, shortening sarcomere. sliding-filament model
  62. myofilaments don't shorten - they slide over top one another, sarcomere shortens
  63. muscle contraction requires energy in the form of
  64. power strokes
    series of gripping and releasing of myosin heads on actin filaments splitting atp for fuel
  65. contraction requires two things
    atp and calcium
  66. motor neuron
    stimulates a nerve to contract
  67. axons
    extensions from the cell bodies
  68. 4 stages of muscle fiber contraction
    1 impulse releases neurotransmitters called ACh into synaptic cleft

    2 ACh diffuses across cleft, stimulates receptors in the sarcolemma

    3 sends electrical impulse over sarcolemma and inward along t tubules which causes sacs in the sarcoplasmic reticulum to release calcium

    4  calcium binds w troponin on actin filament exposing attachment pnts where myosin heads grab onto
  69. a connection bw a motor neuron and muscle fiber is called
    neuromuscular junction
  70. bw the end of motor neuron and muscle fiber is a narrow space called ____ ________
    synaptic cleft
  71. acetylcholine
  72. a chemical messenger is called
  73. two protein molecules entwined with actin filament
    troponin and tropomyosin
  74. how do muscles relax
    acetylcholinesterase breaks down remaining ACh and calcium ions are pumped back into sarcoplasmic reticulum
  75. how do muscles obtain energy at rest
    oxygen uses aerobic respiration to break down fatty acids
  76. aerobic means
    with oxygen
  77. how do muscles obtain energy during exercise
    muscles break down cp
  78. cp stands for
    creatine phosphate
  79. what is cp
    high energy coumpound stored in muscle
  80. cp can fuel a muscle for how long
    20 sec high energy, a min of moderate
  81. obtaining muscle energy with continued exercise
    muscles switch to anaerobic respiration of glucose, generates energy quickly and produces lactic acid which leads to muscle fatigue
  82. after 10 mins of moderate activity for energy levels
    heart and lungs have had enough o2 and switch back to aerobic  resp that produces more atp and carbon dioxide and water (less toxic than lactic acid)
  83. "go for the burn"
    strenous exercise causing lactic acid accumulation in anaerobic exercise
  84. why do athletes focus on diet
    body obtains energy from synthesis of atp and cp from food
  85. main muscle triggering movement
    prime mover
  86. muscles that assist in movement
  87. muslces balancing movement are
  88. how does antagonist work
    they oppose action of prime mover. when pm contracts, antag relax.

    works to moderate speed or range of movement.

    prevent jnt injury
  89. muscle enlargement from strength training
  90. muscle shrinking
  91. aerobic (endurance) exercise stimulates growth of blood vessels allowing
    increased supply of o2 and glucose - for atp productuion
  92. how many muscles and what % of wt
    600 muscles, 40%
  93. overly contracted fibers
    weak contraction; myosin bumps into zdisc
  94. overly stretched fibers
    weak, myosin and actin have very little overlap
  95. strongest contraction
    myosin and actin are partially overlapped
  96. muscle tone
    continuous state of partial contraction , allows you to stand, react quick
  97. motor unit
    neuron and all the fibers it stimulates
  98. motor units have how many fibers
    a few to a few hundred
  99. threshold
    minimum voltage requried for a muscle fiber to contract
  100. twitch
    single, brief contraction
  101. force of contraction is affected by 3 things
    size of muscle, degree of stretch, # of muscle fibers contracting
  102. smaller motor units found in muscles that
    perform precise movement
  103. larger motor units found
    dont perform precise movement
  104. rigor mortis
    rigid muscles at time of death. atp stops, myosin heads remain locked onto actin filaments. no sliding occurs. peaks 12 h after death fades over 48 hrs
  105. slow twitch type 1
    respnd slowly to stimuli, efficient at using o2 to generate atp, fire for a long time, maarathon runner
  106. fast twitch type 2
    short bursts, poor blood supply, release calcium quickly, fatigue quick, sprinters
  107. nervous system responds to demands on muscles in two ways
    altering the frequency of the stimulus and altering the intensity of stimulus
  108. muliple contractions in a row; last one is stronger why
    calcium build-up treppe
  109. treppe
    staircase phenomenum
  110. imcomplete tetanus
    rapid contraction w only partial relaxation
  111. complete tetanus
    impulses arrive so fast that muscle cant relax at all between stimuli, twitches merge into one prolonged contraction
  112. state of imcomplete tetanus
    most skeletal muscles remain in this; to allow continuation- muscles fire in overlapping pattern, one group of fibers contract other relax
  113. strong stimulus
    may stimulate all fibers in motor nerve. call on accompanying muscle fibers to contracrt, stronger - recruitment
  114. recruitment
    increasing # of motor units are called into action
  115. isometric contractions
    tension in muscle increases and length stays the same
  116. isotonic contractions
    muscle changes length and moves a load while tension in muscle remains the same - tone same
  117. iso-
  118. -tonic
  119. contraction of a bone causes one bone to move while other stays still
  120. origin
    end of muscle attaches to more stationary bone
  121. belly
    thick mid section
  122. insertion
    end of muscle that attaches to more moveable bone
  123. face contains how many muscles
    over 30
  124. human face is more expressive that other mammals
  125. every muscle of face generated by
    cranial nerve VII
  126. bells palsy
    causes paralysis of muscles on affected side, viral infection
  127. rotator cuff
    4 tendons at shoulder scapula sits
  128. sits
    • supraspinatus
    • infraspinatus
    • teres minor
    • subrascapularis
  129. bodys most mobile jnt
  130. prime mover when flexing forearm
  131. synergist when flexing forearm
    beceps brachii
  132. antagonist when flexing forearm
    triceps brachii
  133. prime mover when extending arm
    triceps brachii
  134. antagonist when extending arm
  135. flexors
    muscles that flex the wrist
  136. extensors
    extends the wrist
  137. prime mover for flexing elbow
    beceps brachii
  138. tailors muscle
    • sartorius
    • tailors sat cross legged when sewing, supporting work on knee
  139. backswing of walking and climbing stairs
    gluteus maximus
  140. severing hamstrings
    • renders a person immediately immobile
    • ancient knights would slice the back of opponents leg
  141. im injection site
    • gluteus medius
    • 2-3 ml
    • of
    • deltoid 2 ml or less
  142. .
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