1. After execution of Robespierre
    • a.      Robespierre, revolutionary fervor began giving way to Thermidorean Reaction
    •                                                               i.      Terror began to abate
    •                                                             ii.      National Convention curtailed power of Committee of Public Safety, shut down the Jacobin club, and attempted to provide better protection for its deputies against Parisian mobs
  2. Changes after execution
    • 1.      Churches reopened for worship and decree gave freedom of worship to cults
    • 2.      Economic regulation replaced with laissez-faire policies, showing moderate forces in power
    • 3.      New constitution written in August 1795 that reflected this more conservative republicanism or a desire for a stability that didn’t sacrifice ideals of 1789
  3. Constitution of 1795
    a.      To avoid dangers of another single legislative assembly, the Constitution of 1795 established a national legislative assembly consisting of two chambers: a lower house (Council of 500), whose function was to initiate legislation, and an upper house of 250 members, (Council of Elders) composed of married or widowed members over forty, which would accept or reject the proposed laws
  4. members chosen
    •                                                               i.      750 members of the two legislative bodies were chosen by electors who had to be owners or renters of property worth between one hundred and two hundred days’ labor, a requirement that limited their number to 30,000, an even smaller base than the Constitution of 1791 had provided
    • 1.      Electors chosen by active citizens, now defined as all male taxpayers over 21
  5. Executive authority
                                                                  i.      Executive authority or Directory consisted of five directors elected by Council of Elders from a list presented by the Council of 500
  6. To ensure continuity
    •                                                               i.      To ensure some continuity from old order to the new, the members of the National Convention ruled that 2/3 of the new members of the National Assembly must be chosen from their ranks
    • 1.      This decision produced disturbances in Paris and an insurrection at the beginning of October that was dispersed after fierce combat by an army contingent under the artillery general Napoleon Bonaparte
  7. a.      Last time in French Revolution that the city of Paris would attempt to impose its wishes on the central government
    Use of army made it clear that....
                                                                                                                                          i.      the Directory from the beginning had to rely on the military for survival
  8. Period of Directory
    •                                                               i.      Era of materialistic reaction to the suffering and sacrifices that had been demanded in the Reign of Terror and the Republic of Virtue
    •                                                             ii.      Speculations made fortunes in property by taking advantage of the government’s severe monetary problems.
  9. fashions
    • 1.      Elaborate fashions, which had gone out of style because of their identification with the nobility, were worn again
    • a.      Gambling and roulette popular
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Groups of “gilded youth”—sons of wealthy, with long hair and rumpled clothes—took to the streets to insult former supporters of the Revolution
  10. political enemies
    •                                                               i.      Government of the directory had to contend with political enemies from both ends of the political spectrum
    • 1.      On right: royalists dreamed of restoring monarchy and continued agitation
    • 2.      On left: Jacobin hopes of power were revived by continuing economic problems, especially the total collapse in the value of the assignats
  11. Gracchus Babeuf
    • a.      Some radicals went beyond earlier goals , especially Gracchus Babeuf
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Appalled at misery of common people, wanted to abolish private property and eliminate private enterprise
    • 1.      His Conspiracy of Equals was crushed in 1796, and he was executed in 1797
  12. New elections
    • 1.      New elections in 1797 created even more uncertainty and instability
    • a.      Battered by left and right and unable to find solution to country’s economic problems, and still carrying on wars left from the Committee of Public safety, the Directory relied on military to maintain powerà coup d’état in 1799à Napoleon Bonaparte
Card Set