The ability to make and manipulate models.
The mental process of making one or more models of the components of a system and connecting the inputs and outputs among those components into a sensible whole, one that explains the phenomenon observed.
The situation in which two or more people work together toward a common goal, result, or product; information systems facilitate collaboration.
⦁ Ability to experiment
Fear of failure: the fear that paralyzes so many good people and so many good ideas. Successful experimentation is not thrrowing buckets of money at every crazy idea that enters your head. It does mean, however, making a careful and reasoned analysis of an opportunity, envisioning potential products or solutions or applications of technology, and then developing those ideas that seem to have the mose promise, consistent with the resources you have.
⦁ Moore’s Law
“The number of transistors per square inch on an integrated chip double every 18 months”
⦁ What is MIS?
Management Information Systems (MIS) An information system that helps business achieve their goals and objectives. Management information systems, which we define as the development and use of information systems that help businesses achieve their goals and objectives. This definition has three key elements: development and use, information systems, and business goals and objectives.
⦁ What is Information Systems (IS)?
Is a group of components that interact to produce information
⦁ What are the five components of IS
- I. Hardware
- II. Software
- III. Data
- IV. Procedures
- V. People
Electronic components and related gadgetry that input, process, output, store, and communicate data according to instructions encoded in computer programs or software. Examples: Desktops, Laptops, PDAs
- Instructions for computers. One of the five fundamental components of and information system.
- Examples: Operating systems, Application Programs
- Recorded facts of figures.
- Examples: Facts and figures entered into computers
- Instructions for humans
- Examples: How the other four components are used
- As oart of the five-component framework, one of the five fundamental components of an information system; includes those who operate and service the computers, those who maintain the data, those who support the networks, and those who use the system.
- Examples: Users, Technologists, IS Support
Hardware and People taking actions
software and procedures provide instructions for actors.
Data bridges hardware/software and people/procedures.
⦁ The process of automation
Automation moves work from the human side to the computer side
⦁ What is a Computer Based Information System?
An information system that includes a computer. There are information systems that do not include computers, such as a calendar hanging on the wall.
⦁ Think about an example of information system that does not include computers
Besides the above named example, another information system that does not include a computer would be a shopping list, or a household chore worksheet.
Consists only of a file of email addresses and an email program. Only small amount of work moved from the human side to computer side. Considerable human work is required to determine when to send which emails to which customers.
Customer support system keeps track of equipment customers have, maintenance schedules for equipment, and automatically generates email reminders to customers. More work has been moved from human side to computer side. Computer is providing more services on behalf of humans.
using an email program and its addresses is low-tech because just a small amount of work is being accomplished by a computer system.
implementing a customer support system is high-tech because a large amount of work is being accomplished by the computer system rather than humans.
⦁ Characteristics of good information
- Accurate (Information)
- Timely (Information)
- Relevant (Information)
- Just (barely) sufficient (Information
- Worth it's cost (Information
Information that is based on correct and complete data and that has bee processed correctly as expected.
Information that is based on correct and complete data and that has been processed correctly as expected.
Information that is appropriate to both the context and the subject
Just (barely) sufficient (Information)
Information that meets the purpose for which it is generated, but just barely so.
Worth it's cost (Information)
Information for which there is an appropriate relationship between the cost of the information and it's value
(1) Knowledge derived from data (most common), where data is defined as recorded facts or figures; (2) Data presented in a meaningful context; (3) data processed by summing, ordering, averaging, grouping, comparing, or other similar operations; (4) a difference that makes a difference
Recorded facts or figures. Also one of the five fundamental components of an information system.
Information technology (IT) pertains to...
- to things you buy:
- Hardware, Software, Data components
• Things you can buy or lease:Products, Methods, Inventions, Standards (obtain pre-designed procedures)
• Information technology drives the development of new information systems.
Information Systems (IS) include five components:
Hardware, Software, Data, Procedures, People
What is collaboration?
- Collaboration occurs when two or more people work together to achieve a common Goal, Result, or Work productCollaboration is greater than individuals working alone and involves more than coordination and communication alone.
- Collaboration is defined as; the situation in which two or more people work together toward a common goal, result, or products; information systems facilitate collaboration.
Why are the giving and receiving feedback important?
- ⦁ Proceed in a series of steps (iterations) by continuously reviewing and revising one another’s work.
- ⦁ Learn from one another rather than working in isolation.
- ⦁ Change the way they work and what they produce.
- ⦁ Ultimately, produce a product that’s greater (and better) than an individual could accomplish working alone.
- ⦁ When one person produces something, others comment on what was produced, a revised version is produced. When in the process of reviewing others’ work, team members learn from each other and change the way they work and what the produces. The feedback and iteration enable the group to produce something greater than any single person could accomplish working independently.
- ⦁ Iteration and feedback are part of every phase of a project.
⦁ Three critical collaboration drivers
- ⦁ communication
- ⦁ content management
- ⦁ workflow control
A critical factor in collaboration, consisting of two key elements: (1) the abilities of individuals to share information and receive feedback and (2) the availability of effective systems by which to share information.
⦁ content management
One of the drivers of collaboration effectiveness, which enables multiple users to contribute to and change documents, schedules, task lists, assignments, and so forth, without one users work interfering with another’s. Content management also enables users to track and report who made what changes, when, and why.
In a version-control system, authorizations to access shared documents stored in various directories. Typical permissions are read-only, read-and-edit, and read-edit-delete; some directories have no permission ~ they are off-limits.
⦁ workflow control
Use of software and information systems to monitor the execution of a work team’s processes; ensures that actions are taken at appropriate times and prohibits the skipping of steps or tasks.
A process or procedure by which content is created, edited, used and disposed.
⦁ Procedures of collaboration project
⦁ Starting, planning, doing, and wrapping-up
- •Set ground rules
- •Consider team authority—set goal/objectives and determine how to accomplish them
- •Set expectations for team members Role each will play Authority for each member
- •Establish procedures for meetings
•Set ground rules•Consider team authority—set goal/objectives and determine how to accomplish them•Set expectations for team members Role each will play Authority for each member•Establish procedures for meetings
- •Determine “who will do what and by when”
- •Identify task dependencies
- •Evaluate alternatives
- •Make clear assignments of tasks to team members: To ensure that team members know when, and by whom, tasks will be accomplished.
- •Ensure that tasks are accomplished on time
- •Identify schedule problems as early as possible
- •Add, delete, modify tasks, change task assignments, add or remove task labor and so forth, as necessary
- •Document results
- •Document the “learnings” for future teams
- •Close down the project and disband
⦁ What is the task dependency?
Task dependencies are simple and readily understood. The key for student groups is to make clear assignments of tasks to team members and to ensure that the team knows why when they will accomplish those tasks.
Information exchange that occurs when all members of a work team meet at the same time, such as face-to-face meetings of conference calls.
Information exchange that occurs when all members of a work team do not meet at the same time, such as those who work different shifts or in different locations.
Tracking of changes to documents by means of features and functions that accomodate concurrent work. The means by which version management is done depend on the particular version-management system used; three such systems are wikis, google Docs & Spreadsheets, and Microsoft Groove
Use of software to control access to and configuration of documents, designs, and other electronic versions of products.
A workflow in which activities occur in sequence.
A workflow in which activities occur simultaneously.
⦁ 2 types of workflow
sequential and parallel
⦁ Two types of decision process
structured vs. unstructured
A type of decision for which there is a formalized and accepted method for making the decision.
A type of decision for which there is no agreed-on decision-making method.
⦁ 3 types of business decision
operational, managerial, strategic
Decisions that concern the day-to-day activities of an organization. I.E. How many widgets should we order from vendor A? Should we extend credit to vendor B? Which invoices should we pay today?
A decision that concerns the allocation and use of resources. I.E.How much should we budget for computer hardware and programs for department A next year? How many engineers should we assign to project B? How many square feet of warehouse space do we need for the coming year?
Decision that concerns broader-scope, organizational issues. I.E. Should we start a new product line? Should we open a centralized warehouse in Tennessee? Should we acquire company A?
⦁ An organization’s goals and objectives are determined by it's...
A value chain is a network of...
Primary Activities in the Value Chain
Inbound logistics - Operations/Manufacturing - Outbound logistics - Sales and Marketing - Customer Service
Support Activities in the Value Chain
The support activities in the generic value chain contribute indirectly to the production, sale and service of the product. They include procurement, which consists of the processes of finding vendors, setting up contractual arrangements, and negotiating prices.
Value Chain Linkages
Linkages are interactions across value activities. Linkages are important sources of efficiencies and are readily supported by information systems.
⦁ Five force model
- Model, proposed by Michael Porter, that assesses industry characteristics and profitability by means of five competitive forces.
- Bargaining power of customers,
- threat of substitutions,
- bargaining power of suppliers,
- threat of new entrants,
Assessing an industry structure based on five questions:
- 1.How much bargaining power do customers have?
- 2.How much of a threat do substitution products or services pose?
- 3.How much bargaining power do suppliers have?
- 4.How great is the threat of new competitors entering the marketplace?
- 5.How great is the rivalry among existing firms?
⦁ Porter’s four competitive strategies
- ⦁ Focus on a cost strategy
- ⦁ Focus on a differentiation strategy
- ⦁ Focus on the cost or differentiation strategy across an industry
- ⦁ Focus on the cost or differentiation strategy across an industry segment.
⦁ Value chain
A network of value-creating activities
According to Porter, the amount of money that a customer is willing to pay for a resource, product, or service
The difference between the value of outputs in a business process and the cost of the process
⦁ Primary Activities
In Porter's Value chain model, the fundamental activities that create value - inbound logistics, operations, outbound logistics, marketing/sales, and service
⦁ Support Activities (4 of them)
- technology development,
- human resources,
- firm infrastructure
finding vendors, setting up contractual arrangements, and negotiating prices
research and development, developing new techniques, methods, and procedures
recruiting, compensation, evaluation, and training of full-time and part-time employees
general management, finance, accounting, legal, and government affairs
Value Chain Linkages
Linkages are the interactions across the value activities.
Example: Manufacturing systems use linkages to reduce inventory costs, sales forecasts to plan production; production plan to determine raw materials needs; material needs to schedule purchases. End result is just-in-time inventory, which reduces inventory sizes and costs.
Business Process Design
Organizations should not automate or improve existing functional systems. Rather, they should create new, more efficient business processes that integrate activities of all departments involved in a value chain.
⦁ Business Process
- network of activities that generate value by transforming inputs into outputs.
⦁ Inputs Resources
The resources that a business adds in the course of producing goods or services as part of it value creating activities.
⦁ Outputs Resources
The goods or services that result from a business's value-creating activities
store resources; some facilities, such as inventories, store physical items. Other facilities, such as databases, hold data. Structures used within a business process.
⦁ Business process management (BPM
A systematic process of modeling, creating, implementing, and assessing business processes
Competitive advantage via products
- Creating new products or services,
- Enhancing existing products or services, Differentiating their products and services from those of their competitors.
Lock in customers via high switching costs—make it too expensive for customer to switch to a competitor
Lock in suppliers—be easy to connect to and work withCreate entry barriers—make it difficult and expensive for new competition to enter the market
Establish allianceswith other organizations—establish standards, promote product awareness and needs, develop market size, reduce purchasing costs, and provide other benefits
Reduce costs—enables reducing prices and/or to increasing profitability. Increased profitability means more cash to fund further infrastructure development and greater competitive advantage
⦁ Switching costs - Business strategy of locking in customers by making it difficult or expensive to change to another product or supplier
The means by which computers represent data; also called binary digit. A bit is either a zero or a one.
(1) A character of data; (2) an 8-bit chunk
⦁ How does a computer run a program or process data
First step: CPU transfers a program or data from a storage disk to main memory.
Second step: CPU moves a program instruction from main memory into the CPU via the data channel, or bus.
part of CPU, is very fast memory used to store frequently used instructions in order to speed up processing.
⦁ Memory Swapping
The movement of programs and data into and out of memory. If a computer has insufficient memory for its workload, such swapping will degrade system performance.
Data that will be lost when the computer or device is not powered
Memory that preserves data contents even when not powered (e.g., magnetic and optical disks). With such devices, you can turn the computer off and back on, and the contents will be unchanged.
A computer that provides word processing, spreadsheets, database access, and usually a network connection
A computer that provides some type of service, such as hosting a database, running a blog, publishing a Web site, or selling goods. Server computers are faster, larger, and more powerful that client computers.
A software application that requires noting more than a browser and can be run on only the user's computer.
A software application that requires programs other than just the browser on a user's computer - that is, that requires code on both client and server computers.
⦁ Server Farm
A large collection of server computers that coordinates the activities of the servers, usually for commercial purposes.
The computing network on the internet
Instructions for computers. One of the five fundamental components of an information system
⦁ Operating system
OS A computer program that controls the computer's resources: It manages the contents of main memory, processes keystrokes and mouse movements, sends signals to the display monitor, reads and writes disk files, and controls the processing of other programs.
⦁ Application system (application software)
Programs that perform a business function. Some application programs are general purpose, such as Excel or Word. Other application programs are specific to a business function, such as accounts payable.
⦁ Horizontal-market application
Software that provides capabilities common across all organizations and industries; examples include word processors, graphics programs, spreadsheets, and presentation programs.
⦁ Vertical-market application
Software that serves the needs of a specific industry. Examples of such programs are those used by dental offices to schedule appointments and bill patients, those used by auto mechanics to keep track of customer data and customers; automobile repairs and those used by parts warehoused to track inventory, purchases, and sales.
⦁ How do organizations acquire application software?
- off-the-shelf software,
- off-the-shelf software with alterations software,
- or custom developed software.
Agreement that stipulates how a program can be used. Most specify the number of computers on which the program can be installed, some specify the number of users that can connect to and use the program remotely. Such agreements also stipulate limitations on the liability of the software vendor for the consequences of errors in the software
⦁ Site license
A licence purchased by an organization to equip all the computers on a site with certain software.
Computer software that is installed into devices such as printers, print services, and various types of communication devices. The software is coded just like other software, but is installed into special, programmable memory of the printer or other device
⦁ Open source software (examples)
- •GNU(Gnu Not Unix)
- •GNU General Public License (GPL) Agreement One of the standard license agreements for open source software •Successful open source projects OpenOffice(a Microsoft Office look-alike) FireFox(a browser) MySQL(a DBMS, see Chapter 5)
- Apache (a Web server…see Chapter 8) Ubuntu(a Windows-like desktop operating system)
- Android(a mobile-phone operating system)
Open source means...
that the source code of the program is available to the public
is computer code as written by humans and that is understandable by humans
A version of Unix that was developed by the open source community. The open source community owns Linux, and there is no fee to use it. Linux is populare operating system for Web servers
⦁ GNU general license (GPL) agreement
One of the standard license agreements for open source software.